Our understanding of neural information processing could potentially be advanced by combining flexible three-dimensional (3-D) neuroimaging and stimulation. Recent developments in optogenetics suggest that neurophotonic approaches are in principle highly suited for noncontact stimulation of network activity patterns. In particular, two-photon holographic optical neural stimulation (2P-HONS) has emerged as a leading approach for multisite 3-D excitation, and combining it with temporal focusing (TF) further enables axially confined yet spatially extended light patterns. Here, we study key steps toward bidirectional cell-targeted 3-D interfacing by introducing and testing a hybrid new 2P-TF-HONS stimulation path for accurate parallel optogenetic excitation into a recently developed hybrid multiphoton 3-D imaging system. The system is shown to allow targeted all-optical probing of in vitro cortical networks expressing channelrhodopsin-2 using a regeneratively amplified femtosecond laser source tuned to 905 nm. These developments further advance a prospective new tool for studying and achieving distributed control over 3-D neuronal circuits both in vitro and in vivo.
Temporal focusing (TF) multiphoton systems constitute a powerful solution for cellular resolution optogenetic stimulation and recording in three-dimensional, scattering tissue. Here, we address two fundamental aspects in the design of such systems: first, we examine the design of TF systems with specific optical sectioning by comparatively analyzing previously published results. Next, we develop a solution for obtaining TF in a flexible three-dimensional pattern of cellmatched focal spots. Our solution employs spatio-temporal focusing (SSTF) in a unique optical system design that can be integrated before essentially any multiphoton imaging or stimulation system.