With the aim of contribution to the study of atmospheric ozone layer, a new sensitive radiometer for atmospheric minor
constituents has been installed in the Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral, División LIDAR, CEILAP
(CITEDEF-CONICET), in October 2010. This observatory is established in the city of Rio Gallegos (51° 36' S, 69° 19'
W), Argentina, close to the spring ozone hole. The millimeter wave radiometer was developed in STEL (Solar
Terrestrial Environment Laboratory), Nagoya University, Japan. This passive remote sensing instrument is able to
measure the ozone (O3) amount in the high stratosphere and mesosphere continuously and automatically with a high time
resolution. The millimeter wave radiometer ozone profiles will be supplemented with the ozone profiles obtained from
the DIAL system existent in the observatory.
The millimeter wave radiometer is based on the spectral signal detection from the atmosphere due to the molecular
rotational transition of molecules under study. The operation is based on a superheterodyne system which uses a
Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer receiver operating at 203.6GHz. The SIS mixer junction consists
of a sandwich structure of Nb/AlOx/Nb, and is cooled to 4.2K with a closed cycle He-gas refrigerator. Two additional
heterodyne-mixed stages are realized with the aim to shift the measured spectral line until a frequency around of 500
MHz. A FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) spectrometer system is used as a back end.
The aims of this work are to show the potential of the millimeter wave radiometer installed in the subpolar latitudes close
to the polar ozone hole and to present the preliminary result of the first measurements.
Nine-layered skin tissue model is developed for Monte Carlo simulation of spectral reflectance. Various spectral
reflectance curves are generated by taking different values in five input parameters: scattering coefficient, absorption
coefficient, anisotropic scattering parameter, refractive index, and layer thickness in each of the nine layers. These curves
are then discussed to investigate spectral characteristics corresponding to change of values in the parameters. Using
appropriate values in such optical and geometrical parameters, simulated spectra can be produced to agree well with
measured spectra. This approach provides a flexible spectral fitting means to measured results and estimation of change
in the parameters in skin tissue.
We propose a novel method of skin image reconstruction based on color generation using Monte Carlo simulation of
spectral reflectance in the nine-layered skin tissue model. The RGB image and spectral reflectance of human skin are
obtained by RGB camera and spectrophotometer, respectively. The skin image is separated into the color component
and texture component. The measured spectral reflectance is used to evaluate scattering and absorption coefficients in
each of the nine layers which are necessary for Monte Carlo simulation. Various skin colors are generated by Monte
Carlo simulation of spectral reflectance in given conditions for the nine-layered skin tissue model. The new color
component is synthesized to the original texture component to reconstruct the skin image. The method is promising for
applications in the fields of dermatology and cosmetics.
Analysis of the dermo-epidermal surface in three-dimensions is important for evaluating cosmetics. One approach is based on the active contour model, which is used for extracting local object boundaries with closed curve form. The dermo-epidermal surface, however, is a plane with open form. We have developed a method of automatically extracting the dermo-epidermal surface from volumetric confocal microscopic images, as well as constructing a 3-D visual model of the surface by using the geometric information contained in the control points. Our method is a 3-D extension of the active contour model, so we call it the active open surface model (AOSM). The initial surface for AOSM is an open curve plane, guided by a 3-D internal force, a 3-D external constraint force, and a 3-D image force, which pull it toward the objective surface. The proposed technique has been applied to extract actual dermo-epidermal surface in the given volumetric confocal microscopic images.