WINERED is a PI-type 0.9 – 1.35 μm high-resolution spectrograph developed by the Laboratory of Infrared highresolution Spectrograph (LiH) of the Koyama Astronomical Observatory at Kyoto Sangyo University, Japan. The scope of WINERED is to realize a high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph with both wide coverage and high sensitivity. WINERED provides three observational modes called as the Wide, Hires-Y and Hires-J modes. The Wide mode simultaneously covers the z, Y and J-bands in a single exposure with R ≡ λ/Δλ = 28,000 and was commissioned for the 1.3 m Araki Telescope of Koyama Astronomical Observatory in 2013. We have been building alternative observational modes “Hires-Y” and “Hires-J”, providing R = 80,000 spectra in the Y- and J-bands, respectively. There are two choices for realizing a compact spectrograph with a high spectral resolution of R ≧ 50,000: an immersion grating (IG) or a highblazed echelle grating (HBG). Investigating the availabilities of both optical devices, we selected an HBG solution for λ < 1.5 μm because can be realized with currently available technology in earlier time. The optical parameters of WINERED’s HBGs are as follows: groove pitch = 90.38 μm, blaze angle = 79.32 °, and apex angle = 88°, which are determined to minimize vignetting in the optical system as well as aberrations with the spectral resolution of R = 80,000. Custom HBGs were made by CANON Inc. Because of the size the size limitation in fabrication process, we decided to use a mosaicked grating consisting of two HBGs. The alignment tolerances of the two HBGs are very tight (< 0.5 arcsec for the parallelism between grooves of the two gratings and 1.5 arcsec for the flatness between the two grating surfaces). To enable these fine alignments, we designed a grating holder with an adjustment mechanism with sub-μm positional resolution. We adapted cordierite CO-220 as the material for the grating holder, thereby reducing the misalignment generated by thermal expansions/compression with extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE < 2.0 ×10<sup>−8</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> at 23 °C). As a result of the measurement of the two HBGs installed in the grating holder, we confirmed the parallelism of < 0.1 arcsec. Finally, we evaluated the total optical performances of the Hires modes with the HBGs. The widths of the monochromatic slitimages obtained with a Th-Ar lamp were measured to be 1.7 – 2.3 pixels, which agreed well with the designed values (1.6 – 2.6 pixels). These results should guarantee the spectral resolution (R = 78,000) estimated from the measurement of the linear dispersion [pix / μm]. Because there was an avoidable degradation in reducing the two-dimensional spectrum using HBGs with a large γ angle, the final spectral resolution of the reduced one-dimensional spectrum results in R = 68,000.
SWIMS-IFU is an integral field unit for a near-infrared imaging spectrograph SWIMS (Simultaneous-color
Wide-field Infrared Multi-object Spectrograph), which is being developed as one of the first-generation instruments for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 6.5-m infrared telescope and will be also mounted
on the Cassegrain focus of the Subaru telescope in its initial phase (2015-). As SWIMS has a wide wavelength
coverage which is implemented by a dichroic mirror placed into the collimated beam which splitting it into <i>blue</i>
(0.9-1.4 <i>μ</i>m) and <i>red</i> (1.4-2.5 <i>μ</i>m) arms, the IFU module enables us to simultaneously obtain spatially resolved
entire NIR spectrum from 0.9 to 2.5 <i>μ</i>m in a wide-field of view of 14 ′′ x 10.′′4. The concept of the IFU module is
"easy realization" of an integral filed spectroscopy (IFS) mode without modification of an existing spectrograph
optics. Our IFU can be installed in a mask storage of SWIMS like other slit mask holders, so we can easily
carry out IFS observation by just inserting the IFU module into a focal plane stage. The IFU optics consists of
a pre-optics, an image slicer, a pupil mirror array, and a pseudo-slit mirror array. All the components will be
aligned on an aluminum frame which has a floor size of < 170mm x 220mm) and a height of <60mm. Compared
to existing near-infrared IFU instruments, our IFU has wider field coverage and is more sensitive for extended
sources due to its coarser spatial sampling optimized for seeing-limited observations. In this paper, we report
the concept and detailed optical design of the SWIMS-IFU.
As the resolution of LCD panels adapted for Smartphone and Tablet PC rapidly becomes higher, the performance
needed for lithography tools to produce them also becomes higher than ever.
To respond to such needs, we have developed new lithography tools for mass production of high resolution LCD
panels. We have executed various exposure tests to evaluate their performance.
In this paper, we present the results of these tests. By employing higher NA projection optics, high resolution (2.0μm
and under) has been achieved. We also present the effect of special illumination and the difference in profile between
kinds of photoresist.
Furthermore, we also refer what will be needed for masks and blanks in the next generation. To achieve even higher
resolution, it is necessary for masks and blanks to have high flatness, low level of defects and small linewidth error.
We report the system/optics design and performance of the dome flat-field system for the Araki Telescope, a 1.3- m optical/near-infrared telescope at Koyama Astronomical Observatory in Japan. A variety of instruments are attached to the telescope. The optical imager, which is intended to search for exoplanets, requires an illumination flatness within 1% on the focal plane over the 17-arcmin FOV. Illumination flatness at both the pupil plane and the focal plane of the telescope is essential for calibration of the transmittance of the optical system. We devised an optical design for the flat-field system that satisfies illumination flatness at both the focal and pupil planes using the non-sequential ray tracing software LightTools. We considered far-field illumination pattern of the lamps, scattering surface reflectance distribution of the screen, telescope structure, primary/secondary mirrors, and mirror baffles. We achieved a flat illumination distribution of 0.9% at the focal plane. The systems performance was tested by comparison with a cloud-flat frame, which was derived by imaging cloud cover illuminated by city lights. The calibration data for the dome flat-field system agree well with the cloud-flat frame within 1% for the g′ and i′ bands of the imager, but the r0 band data does not meet the requirement (less than or equal to 2). Moreover, various instruments require a focal plane illuminance ranging over three orders of magnitude. We used six high-power (60W) halogen lamps; the output power is remotely controlled by a thyristor-driven dimmer and a bypass circuit to an autotransformer.
We are developing an integral field unit (IFU) for a near-infrared multi-object imaging spectrograph SWIMS
(Simultaneous-color Wide-field Infrared Multi-object Spectrograph). SWIMS is an instrument for the 6.5m
telescope of the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) project on the summit of Co. Chajnantor
(altitude of 5,640m) in northern Chile. Most of near infrared integral field spectrographs (IFSs) on 8–10m class
telescopes are used with adaptive optics and have fine spatial sampling. Compared with them, SWIMS IFU
has higher sensitivity for extended objects because it has coarser spatial sampling optimized for seeing-limit
observations. We have investigated the feasible optical design, and found a possible layout whose field of view
is about 14 x 10 arcsec<sup>2</sup> with 0.4 arcsec slice width. All IFU mirror arrays will be made of aluminum alloy to
match the thermal expansion with support structures, as they are placed in a cryogenic environment. They will
be fabricated monolithically with high precision machining to reduce alignment process. We have carried out a
fabrication test of a spherical surface and confirmed that surface roughness and surface figure error are enough
low for near-infrared light. As a next step, fabrication of a prototype mirror array with 3 reflective surfaces is
planned. In this paper, we will show our project outline, the IFU optical design and the results of prototyping
Dome Fuji, on the Antarctic plateau, is expected to be one of the best sites for infra-red astronomy. In Antarctica, the coldest, driest air on Earth provides the deepest detection limit. Furthermore, the weak atmospheric turbulence above the boundary layer allows for high spatial resolution. We plan to perform site-testing at Dome Fuji during the austral summer of 2010-2011. This will be the first observation to use an optical/infra-red telescope at Dome Fuji. This paper introduces the Antarctic Infra-Red Telescope with a 40cm primary mirror (AIRT40) which will be used in this campaign; it is an infra-red Cassegrain telescope with a fork equatorial mount. AIRT40 will be used for not only site testing (measurement of seeing and sky background) and daytime astronomical observation during this summer campaign, but also for remote scientific observations during the 2012-2014 winter-over campaign. For this purpose, AIRT40 has to work well even at -80 degree Celsius. Therefore, we accounted for the thermal contraction of the materials while designing it, and made it with special parts which were tested in a freezer. For easy operation, many handles for transportation and a polar alignment stage were installed. Moreover, we confirmed that this telescope has enough pointing, tracking, and optical accuracy for the summer campaign through the test observations at Sendai, Japan. Because of these preparations AIRT40 is suited for observations at Dome Fuji. In the 2010-2011 campaign AIRT40 will be used to measure the seeing, infra-red sky background, and to observe Venus.
An infrared instrument used for observation has to keep the detector and optical components in a very cold environment
during operation. However, because of maintenance, upgrades, and other routine work, there are situations that require
the instrument to be warmed-up and then cooled-down again. At Subaru Observatory, our MOIRCS infrared instrument
has required warm-up and cool-down several times a year for routine maintenance and filter replacement. The MOIRCS
instrument has a large heat capacity and cool-down using only the closed cycle cooler is impractical due to the huge
amount of time it would require. To address this problem Subaru engineers have created a mechanism to allow PRE-COOLING
of the instrument via liquid nitrogen - allowing for a much faster pre-cool process. Even with liquid nitrogen,
the pre-cool process requires 10 tanks and almost a week of continual monitoring in order to reach the desired target
temperature. It is very difficult to work for such a long period of time at the oxygen starved summit of Mauna Kea (4205
meters),and issues of man-power and scheduling conflicts only add to the problems. To address these concerns Subaru
developed an automated pre-cooling system which works continuously and remotely at the summit. The strategy was to
have basic functionality for pre-cooling and user friendly interface. i.e. (1) Continuous cooling until the target
temperature is reached by automated liquid nitrogen tank exchanges and precision temperature control by automated
changes to the liquid nitrogen flow. (2) Remote monitoring and control of all parameter setting by Web browser as user
interface (UI). The goal of the Subaru pre-cooling system was to make it both inexpensive and quick to implement by
using existing technologies. The original goal (to cut down on labor and precision temperature control) has been attained
through several pre-cooling and software/hardware modification cycles. We will report on the progress and status of our
pre-cooling experiences in this presentation.
MOIRCS is a new Cassegrain instrument of Subaru telescope, dedicated for wide field imaging and multi-object spectroscopy in near-infrared. MOIRCS has been constructed jointly by Tohoku University and the Subaru Telescope and saw the first light in Sept., 2004. The commissioning observations to study both imaging and spectroscopic performance were conducted for about one year. MOIRCS mounts two 2048 × 2048 HAWAII2 arrays and provides a field of view of 4' x 7' with a pixel scale of 0."117. All-lens optical design is optimized for 0.8 to 2.5 μm with no practical chromatic aberration. Observations confirm the high image quality over the field of view without any perceptible degradation even at the field edge. The best seeing we have obtained so far is FWHM=0."18. A novel design of MOIRCS enables us to perform multi-object spectroscopy with aluminum slit masks, which are housed in a carrousel dewar and cooled to ~ 110 K. When choosing MOS mode, a manipulator pulls out a slit mask from the carrousel into the MOIRCS main dewar and sets it properly at the Cassegrain focus. The carrousel is shuttered by a gate valve, so that it can be warmed and cooled independently to exchange slit-mask sets during daytime. We have tested various configurations of 30 or more multi-slit positions in various sky fields and found that targets are dropped at the centers of slits or guide holes within a dispersion of about 0.3 pixels (0."03). MOIRCS has been open to common use specifically for imaging observations since Feb. 2006. The MOS function will be available in next August.
The design, development, operation and current performance of MOS (multi-object spectroscopy) mode of MOIRCS is described. MOIRCS (Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph) is one of the second-generation instruments for the Subaru Telescope and provides imaging and MOS modes with a 4' × 7' field of view for a wavelength range from 0.85 to 2.5 μm. To achieve near-infrared (NIR) MOS up to K-band, MOS mode uses multi-slit masks and a mask exchange system in a cryogenic environment. The masks are housed in a vacuum dewar attached to the MOIRCS main dewar and separated by a large gate valve. The mask dewar is equipped with its own cryogenic cooler and a vacuum pump and is capable of storing eighteen masks. The masks are made of thin aluminum foil. Slits are cut with a laser, with software that corrects for the effects of thermal contraction. The masks are cooled to below 130 K in the mask dewar and transported to the focal plane in the main dewar through the gate valve with a linear motion manipulator. An interlock is equipped on the mask exchange system to secure the cryogenic instrument from accident. Replacing masks can be done in the daytime without breaking the vacuum of the main dewar by isolating the mask dewar with the gate valve. Acquisition occurs by iteratively taking on-sky images through alignment holes on the mask until the rotation and offset between alignment stars and alignment holes become small enough. MOIRCS/MOS mode will be open to the public in late 2006.
MOIRCS (Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph) is a new instrument for the Subaru telescope. In order to perform observations of near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy with cold slit mask, MOIRCS contains many device components, which are distributed on an Ethernet LAN. Two PCs wired to the focal plane array electronics operate two HAWAII2 detectors, respectively, and other two PCs are used for integrated control and quick data reduction, respectively. Though most of the devices (e.g., filter and grism turrets, slit exchange mechanism for spectroscopy) are controlled via RS232C interface, they are accessible from TCP/IP connection using TCP/IP to RS232C converters. Moreover, other devices are also connected to the Ethernet LAN. This network distributed structure provides flexibility of hardware configuration. We have constructed an integrated control system for such network distributed hardwares, named T-LECS (Tohoku University - Layered Electronic Control System). T-LECS has also network distributed software design, applying TCP/IP socket communication to interprocess communication. In order to help the communication between the device interfaces and the user interfaces, we defined three layers in T-LECS; an external layer for user interface applications, an internal layer for device interface applications, and a communication layer, which connects two layers above. In the communication layer, we store the data of the system to an SQL database server; they are status data, FITS header data, and also meta data such as device configuration data and FITS configuration data. We present our software system design and the database schema to manage observations of MOIRCS with Subaru.