Various methods of hybrid integration of photonic circuits are discussed focusing on merits and challenges. Material platforms discussed in this report are mainly polymer and silica. We categorize the hybridization methods using silica and polymer waveguides into two types, chip-to-chip and on-chip integration. General reviews of these hybridization technologies from the past works are reviewed. An example for each method is discussed in details. We also discuss current status of our silica PLC hybrid integration technology.
We report on our efforts to integrate silica and polymer waveguide devices, such as arrayed waveguide gratings
(AWG's), tunable lenses, optical switches, variable optical attenuators (VOA's), power taps. In particular, the
realizations of various optical add/drop multiplexers and tunable dispersion compensators are discussed. The integration
techniques, the design architectures and the corresponding optical performances are presented.
We report on hybrid organic-inorganic optoelectronic sysbsystems that integrate passive and active optical functions. The integration approaches involve various levels of hybridization, from splicing of pigtailed elements, to chip-to-chip attachment, to hybrid on-chip integration involving grafting and flip-chip mounting, and finally to true heteroepitaxy. The materials integrated include polymer, silica, silicon, silicon oxynitride, lithium niobate, indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, yttrium iron garnet, and neodymium iron boron. The functions enabled by this hybridization approach span the range of functions needed in optical circuitry, while using the highest-performance material system for each element. We demonstrate a number of hybrid subsystems, including fully reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers and tunable optical transmitters.
We report on a single-chip 32-channel reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM) based on a polymer planar lightwave circuit platform. This subsystem on a chip consists of 32x8 switches and arrays of 32 add/drop switches, variable optical attenuators (VOA's), power taps, and photodiodes. The architecture, design and optical performance are presented.
We report on a highly integrated photonic circuit using a polymer-based planar waveguide system. The properties of the materials used in this work such as ultra-low optical loss, widely tunable refractive index, and large thermo-optic coefficient, enable a multi-functional chip-scale microphotonic circuit. We discuss the application of this technology to the fabrication of a fully reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer. This subsystem includes channel switching, power monitoring, load balancing, and wavelength shuffling functionalities that are required for agile wavelength-division multiplexing optical networks. Optical properties of our material systems and performance characteristics of the implemented optical passive/active elements are presented, and the integration schemes of the devices to achieve a fully integrated reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer are discussed.
Crystal ion slicing can fabricate microns-thin-films from bulk, single-crystal metal oxides, which are important materials in optical, microwave, and electrical applications. These thin-films maintain single-crystal properties, which are very difficult to achieve in other thin-film technologies such as epitaxial growth. In this paper, ion-slicing technique is reviewed briefly from a process, material, and device perspective. The demonstrated applications in integrated optics are listed, along with a complete reference to ion-slicing related publications.
We report on advances in the hybrid organic/inorganic integration of passive and active optical functions. The integration approaches include chip-to-chip attach, flip-chip mounting, and insertion of films in slots formed in planar lightwave circuits. The materials integrated include polymer, silica, silicon, silicon oxynitride, lithium niobate, indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, yttrium iron garnet, and neodymium iron boron. The functions enabled by the hybrid integration approaches span the range of building blocks needed in optical circuitry, while using the highest-performance material system for each function. We demonstrate high-functionality optoelectronic integrated circuits, including fully reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers and tunable optical transmitters.