Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown superiorities of noninvasiveness and high-efficiency in the treatment of early-stage skin cancer. Rapid and accurate determination of spatially distributed photon fluence in turbid tissue is essential for the dosimetry evaluation of PDT. It is generally known that photon fluence can be accurately obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) methods, while too much time would be consumed especially for complex light source mode or online real-time dosimetry evaluation of PDT. In this work, a method to rapidly calculate spatially distributed photon fluence in turbid medium is proposed implementing a classical perturbation and iteration theory on mesh Monte Carlo (MMC). In the proposed method, photon fluence can be obtained by superposing a perturbed and iterative solution caused by the defects in turbid medium to an unperturbed solution for the background medium and therefore repetitive MMC simulations can be avoided. To validate the method, a non-melanoma skin cancer model is carried out. The simulation results show the solution of photon fluence can be obtained quickly and correctly by perturbation algorithm.
We present a wide-field fluorescence tomography with epi-illumination of sinusoidal pattern. In this scheme, a DMD projector is employed as a spatial light modulator to generate independently wide-field sinusoidal illumination patterns at varying spatial frequencies on a sample, and then the emitted photons at the sample surface were captured with a EM-CCD camera. This method results in a significantly reduced number of the optical field measurements as compared to the point-source-scanning ones and thereby achieves a fast data acquisition that is desired for a dynamic imaging application. Fluorescence yield images are reconstructed using the normalized-Born formulated inversion of the diffusion model. Experimental reconstructions are presented on a phantom embedding the fluorescent targets and compared for a combination of the multiply frequencies. The results validate the ability of the method to determine the target relative depth and quantification with an increasing accuracy.
We present a novel approach for single snapshot determination of absorption coefficient based on multi-frequency modulation transfer function (MTF) characterization from measurement in spatial frequency domain. The adopted Fourier transform domain analysis enables simultaneous extraction of information at multiple applied frequencies and excellent reduction of noise. Simulations were conducted for respectively verifying the feasibility of the MTF based approach and the performance of single snapshot determination of absorption coefficient using multi-frequency measurements. Phantom experiments without reference measurement demonstrated the high accuracy of absolute absorption coefficient determination with a maximum reconstruction error of 0.002 mm<sup>-1</sup>.