The results of studies of influence of oil on vegetative biological objects using Raman spectroscopy method are presented. The characteristics of Raman spectra of plants growing under the influence of oil fractions were obtained. The main changes were detected at 605 cm<sup>-1</sup> , 840 cm<sup>-1</sup> , 2120 cm<sup>-1</sup> wavenumbers, which is associated with increasing concentration of bromine, aromatic carbons and methane in plant leaves.
The results of studies on the effects of heavy metals on aquatic plants using the method of Raman spectroscopy (RS). Introduced optical coefficient, reflecting changes in chlorophyll and carotinoids in relation to the hemicellulose under the influence of heavy metals, defined as the ratio of the intensities of the RS on the wavenumbers 1547 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 1522 cm<sup>-1</sup> to the intensity of the line 1734 cm<sup>-1</sup>. Was monitored waters of the Samara region on the basis of this coefficient.
In this research carried out control of heavy metals on the territory of a large aviation company using an optical method of control. As the biological indicators of heavy metals were used the leaves of plants. As a result of research was performed bivariate analysis entered the optical coefficients at wavenumbers 1150 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 1547 cm<sup>-1</sup> and 1600 cm<sup>-1</sup>, on the basis of which the identified zones aircraft factory exposed most contaminated with manganese and copper. <p> </p>The research of results are confirmed by chemical analysis of the soil.
In this work the results of research of heavy metals impact on aquatic plants with Raman spectroscopy are shown. The peculiarity of Raman spectrum under the influence of heavy metals has been experimentally established. Optical coefficient, determining heavy metals impact on aquatic plants was introduced. It was defined as correlation of Raman intensity values on wave numbers 1547 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 1522cm<sup>-1</sup> to intensity band value at 1600 cm<sup>-1</sup>. Microscopic analysis of aquatic plants under the influence of heavy metals has been conducted.
Experimental study of the hydrogen influence on the optical characteristics of plants by Raman spectroscopy was performed. Research revealed the amplitude increase of Raman intensity in wavenumbers 1130 cm<sup>-1</sup> and 1495 cm<sup>-1</sup> for plants under hydrogen influence. The structural changes in the plant leafs were identified by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Experimental study of kinetic processes of plant tissue has shown the emergence of plant reaction to external impact (hydrogen). In turn, the plant response manifested to Raman intensity increase and leads to increase of stem thickness.