Quantum Rabi oscillation in cavity quantum electrodynamics is at the very heart of the interaction of an atomic system with a single electromagnetic field in a resonator. It has proved a powerful tool to entangle the atom with the field in the case of an empty cavity (vacuum Rabi oscillation). On the other side, as soon as the field is macroscopic, its state seems unaffected and one observes the well-known phenomenon of classical Rabi oscillation which only affects the atomic populations. We propose to experimentally investigate the frontier between those two behaviours, when one has to take into account the fluctations of the photon number. In order to do so, we let interact circular Rydberg atoms with a microwave resonator in which a mesocopic field is injected (a few tens of photons). We observe a strong correlation between specific atomic states and the phase of the injected field, which is measured by a homodyne technique. Those correlations explain in an easy way all the standard features of quantum Rabi oscillations (especially the collapses and revivals). Moreover they allow for the preparation of atom-field entangled state as well as non classical Schroedinger cat like states for the field.