Recently, mouse neuroblastoma cells have been considered as an attractive model for the study of human neurological and prion diseases, and they have been intensively used as a model system in different areas. For example, the differentiation of neuro2a (N2A) cells, receptor-mediated ion current, and glutamate-induced physiological responses have been actively investigated with these cells. These mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells are of interest because they grow faster than other cells of neural origin and have a number of other advantages. The calcium oscillations and neural spikes of mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells in epileptic conditions are evaluated. Based on our observations of neural spikes in these cells with our proposed imaging modality, we reported that they can be an important model in epileptic activity studies. We concluded that mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells produce epileptic spikes in vitro in the same way as those produced by neurons or astrocytes. This evidence suggests that increased levels of neurotransmitter release due to the enhancement of free calcium from 4-aminopyridine causes the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells to produce epileptic spikes and calcium oscillations.
Recently, Mouse neuroblastoma cells are considered as an attractive model for the study of human neurological and
prion diseases, and intensively used as a model system in different areas. Among those areas, differentiation of neuro2a
(N2A) cells, receptor mediated ion current, and glutamate induced physiological response are actively investigated. The
reason for the interest to mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells is that they have a fast growing rate than other cells in neural
origin with a few another advantages. This study evaluated the calcium oscillations and neural spikes recording of mouse
neuroblastoma N2A cells in an epileptic condition. Based on our observation of neural spikes in mouse N2A cell with
our proposed imaging modality, we report that mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells can be an important model related to
epileptic activity studies. It is concluded that the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells produce the epileptic spikes in vitro in
the same way as produced by the neurons or the astrocytes. This evidence advocates the increased and strong level of
neurotransmitters release by enhancement in free calcium using the 4-aminopyridine which causes the mouse
neuroblastoma N2A cells to produce the epileptic spikes and calcium oscillation.
We report the application of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to various types of human cases of otitis media (OM). Whereas conventional diagnostic modalities for OM, including standard and pneumatic otoscopy, are limited to
visualizing the surface information of the tympanic membrane (TM), OCT is able to effectively reveal the depth-resolved microstructural below the TM with a very high spatial resolution. With the potential advantage of using OCT
for diagnosing different types of OM, we examined in-vivo the use of 840 nm wavelength, and OCT spectral domain OCT (SDOCT) techniques, in several human cases including normal ears, and ears with adhesive and effusion types of OM. Peculiar positions were identified in two-dimensional OCT images of abnormal TMs compared to images of a
normal TM. Analysis of A-scan (axial depth-scans) data from these positions could successfully identify unique patterns for different constituents within effusions. These OCT images may not only be used for constructing a database for the
diagnosis and classification of OM, but they may also demonstrate the feasibility and advantages for upgrading the
current otoscopy techniques.