Nowadays, dynamically developing optical (photonic) technologies play an ever-increasing role in medicine. Their adequate and effective implementation in diagnostics, surgery, and therapy needs reliable data on optical properties of human tissues, including skin. This paper presents an overview of recent results on the measurements and control of tissue optical properties. The issues reported comprise a brief review of optical properties of biological tissues and efficacy of optical clearing (OC) method in application to monitoring of diabetic complications and visualization of blood vessels and microcirculation using a number of optical imaging technologies, including spectroscopic, optical coherence tomography, and polarization- and speckle-based ones. Molecular modeling of immersion OC of skin and specific technique of OC of adipose tissue by its heating and photodynamic treatment are also discussed.
The paper presents the investigation of change of tumor optical properties of the rat tumor doped by gold nanoparticles after laser-induced plasmon-resonant photothermal treatment. To obtain the model tumors the rats have been implanted by suspension of alveolar kidney cancer cells. An hour before the experiment the animals have been injected by the suspension of gold nanorods intratumorally. For irradiation a diode laser with wavelength 808 nm has been used. After the irradiation the tumor has been removed and sliced. Spectra of total and collimated transmission and diffuse reflectance of the samples of different layers of the tumors have been measured in the wavelength range 350-2500 nm. Absorption, scattering, reduced scattering coefficients and scattering anisotropy factor of tumor tissues have been calculated with inverse adding-doubling method. The results of the experiment have shown that after doping the tumor tissue by the plasmon resonant nanoparticles and NIR laser irradiating, there is the decreases of absorption as well as scattering properties of the tumor and surrounding tissues. However, despite the sufficiently high temperature on the surface (about 80°C), the changes in the center of the tumor are insignificant.
Delivery of upconversion microparticles [Y2O3:Yb, Er] and quantum dots (CuInS2/ZnS coated with PEG-based amphiphilic polymer) into rat skin using the fractional laser microablation has been studied in vivo. Luminescence spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, confocal microscopy, and histochemical analysis were used for visualization of nanoparticles in microchannels. Results have shown that the upconversion microparticles are detected more efficiently in comparison with the quantum dots. The fluorescence intensity of the inserted upconversion microparticles is higher, when the Omnipaque™ was applied as a skin optical clearing agent. The fluorescent images of upconversion nanoparticle distribution indicate the advantage of particle delivery into skin by ultrasound.
Optical clearing of the rat skin under the action of propylene glycol was studied exvivo. It was found that collimated transmittance of skin samples increased, whereas weight and thickness of the samples decreased during propylene glycol penetration in skin tissue. A mechanism of the optical clearing under the action of propylene glycol is discussed. Diffusion coefficient of propylene glycol in skin tissue exvivo has been estimated as (1.35±0.95)×10-7 cm2/s with the taking into account of kinetics of both weight and thickness of skin samples. The presented results can be useful for enhancement of many methods of laser therapy and optical diagnostics of skin diseases and localization of subcutaneous neoplasms.