It is quite common that patients with ligamentous ruptures, tendonitis, tenosynovitis or sprains are foreseen the use of <i>ad hoc</i> splints for a swift recovery. In this paper, we propose a rehabilitation split that is focused on upper-limb injuries. By considering that upper-limb patient shows a set of different characteristics, our proposal personalizes and prints the splint custom made though a digital model that is generated by a 3D commercial scanner. To fabricate the 3D scanned model the Stereolithography material (SLA) is considered due to the properties that this material offers. In order to complement the recovery process, an electronic system is implemented within the splint design. This system generates a set of pulses for a fix period of time that focuses mainly on a certain group of muscles to allow a fast recovery process known as Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Principle (TENS).
In this paper, a cubic-like structure is proposed to scan and print tools used as medical equipment at low cost for developing countries. The structure features a 3-axis frame plane that uses high-precision step motors. An actuator drives the “x and y” axis through serrated bands with 2 mm pitch. Those give an accuracy of 2.5 microns tops. The z-axe is driven by and inductive sensor that allows us to keep the focus to the printing bed as well as to search for non-smooth areas to correct it and deliver an homogeneous impression. The 3D scanner as well as the entire gears are placed underneath in order to save space. As extrude tip, we are using a 445 nm UV laser with 2000 mW of power. The laser system is able to perform several functions such as crystallizing, engraving or cut though a set of mirror arrays. Crystallization occurs when the laser is guided towards the base. This process allows us to direct it towards the polymer injector and as a result, it crystalizes on the spot. Another feature that this system is the engraving process that occurs while the base moves. The movement allows the beam to pass freely towards the base and perform the engraving process.
We present a numerical analysis of different fiber termination shapes in order to study the maximum numerical aperture that can be obtained in end emitting plastic optical fibers with diameters around 10 mm. Our analysis includes the modeling of polished fibers with parabolic shape, conical lensed fibers, and wedged fibers with different lengths, angles and curvatures respectively. The optimization of these parameters allows us to obtain a maximum possible angle which the light can be emitted at the plastic fiber end. These results contribute to minimize the use of fiber components in luminaire systems which can be based in solar concentrators coupled to plastic optical fibers, and consequently it allows us to reduce their installation cost. We also analyze the light distribution of the emitted light and the optical tolerances of the parameters above mentioned to evaluate the performance of the optimized fiber lens. These results are of great interest for the improvement and design of compact luminaire systems based in optimized plastic fiber lens for indoor illumination.
We report the numerical investigation of an Yb-doped fiber amplifier with a taper end in order to be used as a thermal sensor. The spectral fluorescence intensity of the Yb-doped fiber is highly modified when the tapered end is subject to different temperatures from 20 to 150°C, and these changes are more sensitive than that presented in untapered doped fibers. This enhanced temperature response is attributed to the taper effects on the temperature dependence of the crosssections of the pump and signal radiations and additional changes of the numerical aperture of the doped tapered core due to temperature. These results can be extrapolated to other doped fibers and contribute with new information for the development of temperature fiber laser sensors.
We present an experimental characterization of a fiber laser composed by an Yb-doped fiber spliced with a birrefringent
photonic crystal fiber and a mechanically-induced long-period grating (LPG) into the laser cavity. According to the
torsion properties of the LPG induced in the photonic crystal fiber, the Yb-doped fiber laser can be highly sensitive to
twist and it can shown novel properties in its laser emission. Also, we show the splitting of attenuation bands of a longperiod
fiber grating induced mechanically in different twisted photonic crystal fibers with high birefringence and their
applications on the performance of tunable and switchable multiwavelength double-clad Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers.
The thermal effect of an Yb-doped fiber laser with fattening is numerically investigated. We have identified two principal sources of thermal sensitivity: The temperature dependence of the cross-section of the pump and signal radiations, and modifications of the numerical aperture (NA) due to changes in temperature. We have found that the first factor affects principally the thermal response of the fiber laser with fattening and this sensitivity can be modulated according to the fattening ratio. Additionally this thermal response is higher than that found in doped fibers without fattening. Our results are reproducible and contribute with new information for the development of novel temperature fiber laser sensors
A sensor instrument able to measuring the thickness of different semitransparent objects with a resolution of one micron
is described. This is based on a fiber optic reflectometer and a laser autofocus system and permit to measuring the
thickness of thin surfaces such as semiconductor films, plastic materials and semitransparent objects. The response time
for the measuring was roughly 2 sec and the thickness results were compared with a digital mechanical micrometer and
both are in good agreement.
This paper presents the development of an automatic alignment system for specialty optical fibers. Based on a XY
coordinates system, the alignment is achieved by the control of stepping motors through displacement algorithms. A
hexagonal shape arrangement of SMF´s fibers generates a map location of the spot light. This photo-detection system
enables to analyze the launching of the beam into the fiber. Through an USB based PC interface and software to
automate the alignment process the device's performance has been improved in time and in optical coupling efficiency.
The results obtained are 2 or 3 seconds in the alignment process and roughly 80% coupling efficiency.