Quantum applications transmit and receive data through quantum and classical communication channels. Channel capacity, the distance and the photon path between transmitting and receiving parties and the speed of the computation links play an essential role in timely synchronization and delivery of information using classical and quantum channels. In this study, we analyze and optimize the parameters of the communication channels needed for the quantum application to successfully operate. We also develop algorithms for synchronizing data delivery on classical and quantum channels.
Well-defined and stable quantum networks are essential to realize functional quantum communication applications. In particular, the quantum states must be precisely controlled to produce meaningful results. To counteract the unstable phase shifts in photonic systems, we apply local Bell state measurements to calibrate a non-local quantum channel. The calibration procedure is tested by applying a time encoded quantum key distribution procedure using entangled photons.
Major advancements in computational and sensor hardware have enormously facilitated the generation and collection of research data by scientists - the volume, velocity and variety of Big ’Research’ Data has increased across all disciplines. A visual analytics platform capable of handling extreme-scale data will enable scientists to visualize unwieldy data in an intuitive manner and guide the development of sophisticated and targeted analytics to obtain useable information. Reconfigurable Visual Computing Architecture is an attempt to provide scientists with the ability to analyze the extreme-scale data collected. Reconfigurable Visual Computing Architecture requires the research and development of new interdisciplinary technological tools that integrate data, realtime predictive analytics, visualization, and acceleration on heterogeneous computing platforms. Reconfigurable Visual Computing Architecture will provide scientists with a streamlined visual analytics tool.
We present OpenTap, a unified interface designed as an Infrastructure layer technology for a software-defined network measurement (SDNM) stack. OpenTap provides invocations for remotely capturing network data at various granularities, such as packet or NetFlow. OpenTap drivers can be developed that leverage open source network measurement tools such as tcpdump and nfdump. OpenTap software can be used to turn any computing device with network interfaces into a remotely controlled network data collection device. Although OpenTap was designed for SDNM, its interface generalizes to any data acquisition thereby providing software-defined data acquisition (SDDA). We illustrate this generality with OpenTap drivers that leverage Phidgets USB sensors to remotely capture environmental data such as temperature. We have completed an implementation of OpenTap that uses a REST API for the invocations. Using that implementation, we study a few use cases of OpenTap for automated network management and network traffic visualizations to characterize its utility for those applications. We find that OpenTap empowers rapid development of software for more complex network measurement functionality at the Control layer such as, joining network data with other sources, and creating network data aggregates such as traffic matrices. OpenTap significantly lowers the cost and development barrier to large-scale data acquisition thereby bringing data acquisition and analytics to an unprecedented number of users. Finally, at the Application layer, network measurement applications such as traffic matrix visualizations are easily implemented leveraging OpenTap at the Infrastructure layer in addition to the Control layer. All of these data processing software systems will be open source and available on GitHub by the time of the conference.
Optimized Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) protocols revolutionize the cyber security by leveraging the quantum phenomenon for development of unbreakable security. Configurable quantum networks are necessary for accessible quantum applications amongst multiple users. Quantum key distribution is particularly interesting because of the many ways in which the key exchange can be carried out. Keys can be exchanged by encoding the key into a weak photon source using classical methods, or the keys can be exchanged using pairs of photons entangled at the source, or the keys can even be exchanged by encoding with classical hardware at the source with an entangling measurement which occurs at the photons destination. Each type of quantum key exchange has its own requirements that must be met for point-to-point implementations which makes it exceedingly difficult to implement multi-node quantum networks. We propose a programmable network model to time encoded quantum key distribution; this version of QKD sends entangled photons to two users and the hardware is setup such that the relative time shift in the coincident photons encodes which measurement basis was used. The protocols were first simulated by modifying previous software which used the CHP quantum simulator, and then a point-to-point key exchange was setup in hardware to demonstrate the time encoding aspects of the protocol.
Well-defined and stable quantum networks are essential to realize functional quantum communication applications. Quantum networks are complex and must use both quantum and classical channels to support quantum applications like QKD, teleportation, and superdense coding. In particular, the no-cloning theorem prevents the reliable copying of quantum signals such that the quantum and classical channels must be highly coordinated using robust and extensible methods. In this paper, we describe new network abstractions and interfaces for building programmable quantum networks. Our approach leverages new OpenFlow data structures and table type patterns to build programmable quantum networks and to support quantum applications.
Software-defined networking offers a device-agnostic programmable framework to encode new network functions. Externally centralized control plane intelligence allows programmers to write network applications and to build functional network designs. OpenFlow is a key protocol widely adopted to build programmable networks because of its programmability, flexibility and ability to interconnect heterogeneous network devices. We simulate the functional topology of a multi-node quantum network that uses programmable network principles to manage quantum metadata for protocols such as teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum key distribution. We first show how the OpenFlow protocol can manage the quantum metadata needed to control the quantum channel. We then use numerical simulation to demonstrate robust programmability of a quantum switch via the OpenFlow network controller while executing an application of superdense coding. We describe the software framework implemented to carry out these simulations and we discuss near-term efforts to realize these applications.