The study of the marine coastal accumulative forms’ relief allows clarify the regularities of their evolution. The use of satellite imagery to create bathymetric maps provides information about structure and dynamics of the underwater relief. To date, there are a number of developed algorithms for calculating the depths using satellite data with an expanded range of spectral channels (WorldView-2/3). There are also designs for using images with a standard range of channels (Red-Green-Blue-NIR). The objective of this study is to build bathymetric maps based on data from the non-commercial satellite Sentinel-2. The studied accumulative forms are located in the Black and Azov Seas. Regions characterized by increased muddiness and a small number of cloudless days. In this study the qualitative information was obtained about presence and value of the underwater part of the accumulative forms’ dynamics. It has been shown that the detail of the Sentinel-2 images for this purpose is sufficient. The algorithm, chosen for mapping, is based on the use of the linear regression method of the ratio of natural logarithms of the reflected radiation values of pairs of channels. The software implementation of mapping was based on the ScanEx Image Processor software. Digital bottom relief models were obtained for two sites with depths of 0-7 m. For correct of the underwater relief at greater depths, the obtained DEMs were supplemented with data from navigation maps. Estimation of accuracy was carried out according to the bathymetric measurements made by the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS. The analysis showed that Sentinel-2 images are an important source of data for scientific research in shallow water areas. However, there are limitations that do not allow creating a universal method for creating bathymetric maps.
The plant communities of the sea coasts are formed in the specific conditions of the natural environment. Denudation processes on the sea coast have significant impact to the development of cliff vegetation. This paper presents the results of studies of plant communities’ characteristics on the intensively denudated Black Sea coast. There are four main ecotopes marked by the nature of denudation processes and substrate. Seventy seven plant species are detected at the sea cliff of Tuapkhat massif during geobotanical study. July 6, 2012 on the Black Sea coast near Gelendzhik the extreme storm rainfalls took place. Numerous landslides and landfalls were noted on the coast as a result of rain. The most damaged by denudation sites were identified by analyzing of satellite image series (WorldView-2, WorldView-3, GeoEye-1, Pleiades-1). At the second stage, surveys were carried out from the drone, followed by the construction of digital earth models (DEM) and orthophotoplans for test sites. Field geobotanical investigations at the test sites were performed. It is determined that the distribution of landslide cones is irregular. In total the 20 large landslides with a volume more than 100 m3 were noted. In the course of our research, a significant effect of the past natural extreme phenomenon to the plant communities on the coast was noted. After the extreme rainfall, the new ecotope was formed by landslide bodies. This ecotope is characterized by increased species diversity.
Vityazevskaya Bay-Bar is a part of Anapa Bay Bar – large accumulative form of coastal relief on the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea. This part is located at a distance from the settlements, still less susceptible to human exposure and is an important resource for further recreational development. Detailed mapping of this region was performed basing on the interpretation of digital aerial photography with a resolution of 10 cm at a scale of 1:2 000 for dune belt zone, as well as using SPOT-6 satellite images with a resolution of 8 m at a scale of 1:5 000 for a wide area of around lagoon lowland. The compiled landscape-morphological map shows the specific features of this region. On wide beaches of Vityazevskaya Bay-Bar a belt of beach dunes were formed, but behind the beach zone the dune belt is not developed, replaced by gentle dune slopes. Together with hilly sands, they separate the beach from an extensive around lagoon lowland, in which downstream depressions, with sedge-reed thickets, sometimes filled with sea water, are combined with sandy rises, covered with grassy and tree-shrub vegetation, alternating at higher sites wind-waving sands. Several troughs crossing hilly sands contribute to the penetration of storm seawaters to lowland and dumping them back into the beach zone, where excessive moisture areas, mastered by vegetation, are forming. Thus, the combination of aquatic and dune landscapes is a distinctive feature of the Vityazevskaya Bay-Bar, which must be taken into account for its recreational development.
The length of the coastline and area of the water body are important parameters for geographical statistical calculations, lithodynamic studies, researcher of the land-sea contact zone. Traditionally, the length of the coastline and the area of water bodies were determined by navigational or topographic maps. Both systematic errors, related to errors in mapping or different approaches to determining of coastline position, and errors, related to the high dynamics of the coastal zone, affected to accuracy of such determination. For majority of sea coasts, especially for accumulative, planimetric and highaltitude variability of the water edge position connected with sea level fluctuations or abrasive-accumulative processes is significant. High- and medium-resolution multispectral satellite imaging technologies have opened up new possibilities for clarifying of water bodies’ boundaries and areas. In addition, the theoretical understanding of the coastal development mechanisms, causes and characteristics of their dynamics has expanded significantly in recent decades. The task of this work is to clarify the current coastline length and area of the Sea of Azov. Remote data type was chosen taking into account the survey one-time for the all sea area, spatial coverage, resolution and the availability of spectral channels for accurate determination of the water-land boundary. Images from the satellite Sentinel-2 have optimal combination of characteristics. Total length of the shores of the Azov Sea in 2018 amounted to 3430 km, its area – to 40570 km2. The length of the shores of the Azov Sea without isolate parts amounted to 2100 km, its area – to 35095 km2. Analysis of the results showed that the Sentinel-2 images can be used for revision of parameters of the inland seas.
Geoinformation systems (GIS) is the most convenient instrument for accessing, visualizing, analyzing of spatial (geo-referencing) data, therefore further improvements of the on-line Black Sea GIS were carried out. The Black Sea GIS was developed at the basis of Mapserver cartographic service and MySQL database. GIS consists of independent and interacting subsystems that permit easily its extension. The improvement of the Black Sea GIS includes the regional and coastal data concerning the visualization of the Dolgaya spit dynamics. The Dolgaya spit is a large accumulative body of the Sea of Azov (Black Sea basin). For most part of the area of interest, these changes occur because of natural reasons, but the economic activities at the spit and in the Sea of Azov have a certain influence on the processes too, affecting the changes of the spit. The changes of the spit was determined using satellite images obtained from 1960 to 1970s by the U.S. Geological Survey, as well as, using modern photos and field studies. Two shores, the Dolgaya spit are significantly different in composition and in the processes which take place. The obtained data from satellite remote sensing, aerial and from field surveys were inserted in the Black Sea GIS. The new data for this particular area of interest made possible to provide on-line access and visualization of the maps concerning the Dolgaya spit dynamic changes, values of erosion and accumulation at base points, plots and images, and combine the visualization these data with other GIS information layers.
The paper describes the granulometric characteristics of the large accumulation form sediments (the Anapa Bay-bar). The choice of sampling sites was based on remote sensing data. The analysis of particle size change in 2012 to 2016 has been carried out. The content of carbonate and mineral components in samples collected on the submerge slope has been determined. When comparing the data of 2012 and 2015, it is clear that size structure and composition of sand have not been changed significantly. Analysis of zoobenthos samples shows that the increase in shelly material content is not directly related to the increase in the living mollusks biomass. Sand with a mean particle size of at least 0.3 mm should be used to nourish beaches of the Anapa bay-bar. Smaller material will be washed out to deeper depths or blown away to dunes.
The module structure of the Black Sea GIS allows the increasing of its functionality, including new data types and defining new procedures accessing them, their visualization and integration with existing data by their conjoint processing and representation. The Black Sea GIS is released as free software; Mapserver is used as a mapping service; MySQL DBMS works with relational data. A new additional feature provided, is the ability of including coastal data obtained in SB SIO RAS. The data represent granulometric composition of the Anapa bay-bar sediments. The Anapa bay-bar is an accumulative sand form (about 50 km long) located on the northwest Russian Black Sea coast. The entire bay-bar and especially its southern part with sand beaches 50–200 m wide is intensively used in recreation. This work is based on the results of field studies of 2010–2014 in the southern part of the Anapa bay-bar researched by scientists of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS. Since the shore under consideration has no clearly pronounced reference points, “virtual” points located within 1 km distance from each other were selected. Transversal profiles cross these points. The granulometric composition was studied along with 45 profiles. The samples taken in every profile were from the most characteristic morphological parts of the beach. In this study we used shoreline zone samples. Twenty one granule fractions (mm) were separated in the laboratory. The module which processes coastal data allows to select coastal data based on territory/region and granulometric sediment composition. Also, it allows to visualize coastal maps with user-selected features combined with other GIS data.
For the 2013-14 year as part of the study Anapa accumulative coasts was performed aerial survey, including airborne
laser scanning and digital aerial photography. Size of the survey was 48 km, width of pregnancy ranged from 500 to
1500 meters, depending on the configuration of the coastline. Surveying was done using aerial mapping production Leica
Geosystems, consisting of airborne laser scanner ALS70-CM and digital aerophotocamera RCD-30. The data allowed us
to obtain highly accurate digital terrain models and orthophotos. To perform morphological and morphometric analysis
of the territory at the micro and nanoscale.
We present the methods and results of investigation of the Anapa bay-bar shoreline dynamics, obtained from the analysis of historical and recent data of satellite imaging and aerial survey. It was revealed that several erosion regions exist along the Anapa bay-bar shore (the revealed retreat of the water edge is greater than 70 m over 50 years). A relatively stable region was also found there. In addition, the analysis of short-period dynamics of the water edge location revealed that the short-term displacement of the water edge relative to its mean position is as high as 30 m. These data clarified the dynamics of the Anapa bay-bar shoreline, which is important for the understanding of lithodynamic processes in the coastal zone and developing the forecast of the further evolution of the bay-bar geosystem.
Our study is focused on the Anapa Bay Bar, a 43-km long body of sand on the Black Sea coast, which stretches from the
Russian town of Anapa to the Zhelezny Rog Cape on the Taman’ peninsula. It is a major recreational resource and a host
to unique ecosystems of beaches and partially vegetated sand dunes. Due to large recreational pressure, it is important to
identify features of the bay bar that have to be preserved in order to keep this resource sustainable.
We have conducted landscape and morphological mapping with WorldView-2 images. Methods included field research,
analysis of multitemporal stereopairs and automated image interpretation to create maps of key areas of the Anapa Bay
Bar. In our paper we showcase the map for a section of the Anapa Bay Bar created through visual image interpretation. It
presents all morphological elements such as beaches, sand dunes, sand ridges and lowlands adjoining lagoons. Each
element has its specific vegetation and sustainability against recreational pressure. We also present results of automated
image analysis of seasonal dynamics of the beach and dunes on the basis of multitemporal imagery.