Diamond’s nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center has been shown as a promising candidate for sensing applications and quantum computing because of its long electron spin coherence time and its ability to be found, manipulated and read out optically. An integrated photonics platform in diamond would be useful for NV-based magnetometry and quantum computing, in which NV centers are optically linked for long-range quantum entanglement due to the integration and stability provided by monolithic optical waveguides. Surface microchannels in diamond would be a great benefit for sensing applications, where NV centers could be used to probe biomolecules.
In this work, we applied femtosecond laser writing to form buried 3D optical waveguides in diamond. By engineering the geometry of the type II waveguide, we obtained single mode guiding from visible to the infrared wavelengths. Further, we demonstrate the first Bragg waveguide in bulk diamond with narrowband reflection. We show the formation of single, high quality NV centers on demand in ultrapure diamond using a single pulse from a femtosecond laser. With these building blocks in place, we fabricated an integrated quantum photonic circuit containing optical waveguides coupled to NV centers deterministically placed within the waveguide. The single NVs were excited and their emission collected by the optical waveguides, allowing easy interfacing to standard optical fibers. We also report high aspect ratio surface microchannels, which we will integrate with laser-written NVs and waveguides, paving the way for ultrasensitive, nanoscale resolution biosensors.
Diamond’s nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers show great promise in sensing applications and quantum computing due to their long electron spin coherence time and their ability to be located, manipulated and read out using light. The electrons of the NV center, largely localized at the vacancy site, combine to form a spin triplet, which can be polarized with 532- nm laser light, even at room temperature. The NV's states are isolated from environmental perturbations making their spin coherence comparable to trapped ions. An important breakthrough would be in connecting, using waveguides, multiple diamond NVs together optically. However, the inertness of diamond is a significant hurdle for the fabrication of integrated optics similar to those that revolutionized silicon photonics. In this work we show the possibility of buried waveguide fabrication in diamond, enabled by focused femtosecond high repetition rate laser pulses. We use μRaman spectroscopy to gain better insight into the structure and refractive index profile of the optical waveguides.
Optical waveguides were fabricated with femtosecond pulsed lasers on glass and characterized by transmission measurements. Glass waveguides were later used for excitation of the whispering gallery modes in a silicon microsphere. The coupling between the silicon microsphere and the femtosecond laser inscribed optical waveguide was simulated in both 90° elastic scattering and 0° transmission spectra. The silicon microsphere whispering gallery modes are available for both in the transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations with a spectral mode spacing of 0.25 nm. Optical resonances on silicon microsphere integrated with femtosecond laser written optical waveguides may lead to future quantum optical communication devices.