Nowadays the production of counterfeit and low quality drugs affects human health and generates losses to pharmaceutical industries and tax revenue losses to government. Currently there are several methods for pharmaceutical product analysis; nevertheless, most of them depend on complex and time consuming steps such as sample preparation. In contrast to conventional methods, Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is evaluated as a potential analytical technique for the rapid screening and quality control of anti-diabetic solid formulations. In this paper authors propose a simple method to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) such as Metformin hydrochloride. The authors used ten nanosecond duration pulses (FWHM) from a Nd:YAG laser produces the induced breakdown for the analysis. Light is collected and focused into a Cerny-Turner spectrograph and dispersed into an ICCD camera for its detection. We used atomic emissions from Chlorine atoms present only in APIs as analyte signal. The analysis was improved using Bromine as internal standard. Linear calibration curves from synthetic samples were prepared achieving linearity higher than 99%. Our results were compared with HPLC results and validation was performed by statistical methods. The validation analysis suggests that both methods have no significant differences i.e., the proposed method can be implemented for monitoring the pharmaceutical production process in-situ in real time or for inspection and recognition of authenticity.
In this work, fast and reliable spectroscopic methods in combination with chemometric tools were developed for
simultaneous determination of Acetylsalicylic Acid, Acetaminophen and Caffeine in commercial formulations. For the
first-order multivariate calibration method (PLS-1), calibration and validation sets were constructed with 23 and 10
samples respectively according to a central composite design. The Micro-Raman, FTIR-HATR and UV absorption
spectra in the region of 100-2000 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 400-4400 cm<sup>-1</sup> and 200-350 nm, respectively, were recorded. The % REP's
(Percentage of relative error of prediction) was less than 18 for all used spectroscopic techniques. Subsequently,
commercial pharmaceutical samples were analyzed with percentage of recovery between 90 and 117% for the three
The unique feature of color variability in light emitting diode (LED) sources made of red, green, and blue LEDs (RGB-LEDs) allows the user to select the desired color point of the lamp. The highest color uniformity is obtained using LED clusters with high-density packaging. However, packaging density of LED arrays is limited by cost, available space, and particularly by thermal problems. This paper presents an investigation of the effects on color uniformity of illumination due to different cluster configurations and packaging density of RGB-LEDs. We present a photometric analysis and experimental results that show the performance that can be achieved with a number of different cluster configurations of LEDs.