The treatment with high frequency currents (HFC) is traditionally used to improve the mechanical properties of metal products, in particular hardness and wear resistance. A new method of carburization of titanium samples in a solid carburizer using HFC is proposed in the work. The temperature of the carburization is characterized by a wide range from 1000 to 1400 °C. As a result of thermochemical treatment, a hard coating of TiC (H ≥ 20 GPa) with a microstructure (d = 7-14 μm) consisting of nanoparticles (d = 10-12 nm) is formed on the titanium surface. These coatings are widely used in friction pairs for various purposes, including machinery, instrumentation and medicine.
The aim of this work was the fabrication of nanolabels (SERS-nanotags) which are used for chemical analysis by means of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and registration of their SERS spectra inside photonic crystal fibers (PCF). The SERS nanotags fabrication included synthesis of silver nanoparticles with subsequent deposition of Raman active layer (thiol-group contained aromatic compound) and protecting layer composed of silica shell. Finally, SERS spectra of the SERS nanotags were registered inside PCF in order to determine the value of fiber-enhancement of the Raman signal and to estimate analytical potential of this combination.
The aim of this report is detection of model compound, rhodamine 6G (R6G), in blood and urine samples using surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a detection tool and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for improving quality of SERS analysis (SERS-LLE combination). SERS substrate is a plasmonic nanomaterial which possesses drastic increasing of Raman spectrum intensity (106‒108) of any molecule adsorbed onto its surface. Here we used citrate stabilized silver nanoparticles as SERS substrate and synthesized them applying wet chemical approach. Before SERS measurements, blood and urine samples were artificially contaminated with R6G using 50 and 500 ng/mL concentrations for both samples. In order to reduce detectable concentrations of R6G and improve signal-to-noise ratio, we applied LLE which allows us to separate R6G from the matrix mixture and increase the analyte concentration. Four different LLE protocols were used and the most efficient one was found. Obtained results showed usefulness of SERS-LLE combination for chemical analysis of body fluids with level of detectable concentration down to tens ng/mL.
Control methods of temperature fields inside a tissue during laser photothermolysis are an important point to develop biomedical applications of thermal destructions of cancer. One of the most promising approaches to measure and to control of temperature is the application of luminescence nanothermometers such as CuInS2 nanoparticles. Temperature measurement can be carried out by determination of the maximum of the luminescence band. Thus, we have investigated the influence of exposure time and temperature on the position of the maximum of the luminescence band of CuInS2 nanoparticles.
New SERS-active materials were obtained by preparation of alumina with embedded silver nanoparticles and their application both as sorbents for pre-concentration and SERS platforms was studied. The influence of ionic strength on Ag NPs size, absorption spectra and SERS signal was investigated. Synthesized materials were examined by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The optimal conditions for SERSmeasurements were chosen. Synthesized materials were applied for pre-concentration of model analytes (Rhodamine 6G, folic acid and pyrene) and their SERS detection directly within the sorbent. It was shown that the recovery of analytes could be improved by alumina modification. The combination of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with preconcentration is a promising instrument for analytical applications.
Manuscript is devoted to the comparison of CdSe/ZnS and CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots thermosensitivity in the view of their applications as nanothermometers. It was found the luminescence spectrum of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots consists of two components, which are described by Gauss type functions and connected with different types of defects into nanoparticles. The heat treatments provide different effects such as spectral shifts, FWHM and amplitude for these too components. CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles spectra shifted to the red region; the average speed of spectrum shift is 0.065 nm per degree.
The temperature dependence of the fluorescent spectra of ZnCdS nanoparticles placed into a biological tissue has been
investigated. It is shown that the fluorescence peak of the nanoparticles is shifted towards longer wavelengths, and
fluorescence quenching is observed during heating the biological tissue until its denaturation. ZnCdS nanoparticles are
suitable for measuring the temperature of biological nanoobjects under photothermolysis.
The temperature sensitivity of the spectral characteristics of ZnCdS nanoparticles both stabilized and coated with polyacrylic acid is compared. It is shown that the luminescence of the nanoparticles has two temperature-dependent parameters, namely, the intensity and the peak position. Variations in these parameters are due to the distortion of the energy states of luminescent surface defects. Aggregation of the nanoparticles does not distort obtained dependencies. Temperature sensitivity is higher for the nanoparticles coated with a layer of polyacrylic acid.
Laboratory experiments conducted in Saratov State University in the first half of 2012 revealed crystal formations on the surface of etched dentine after it had been exposed to 95% ethanol in solution for 30 days at room temperature. It was discovered that the structures observed were calcium-phosphate crystals. The nature of crystal formation on rough dentine surface was described based on substance diffusion in solution, which resulted in dentine becoming spatially inhomogeneous over time. The crystal formation was established to be determined by the limited ion redistribution in dentine material.
Crystal formations were observed on the surface of etched dentine after it had been exposed to 95% ethanol in solution for 30 days at room temperature. 3D visualization of surface formations was carried out using a scanning electron microscope and Alicona 3D MeX software (Alicona GmbH). Metric characteristics of the mentioned above structures were evaluated and the nature of possible errors on the steps of model design was studied. It was shown that the shape of crystal models were likely to be approximated by ellipsoid segments.