β-Ga<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> is emerging as an interesting wide band gap semiconductor for solar blind photo detectors (SBPD) and high power field effect transistors (FET) because of its outstanding material properties including an extremely wide bandgap (Eg ~4.9eV) and a high breakdown field (8 MV/cm). This review summarizes recent trends and progress in the growth/doping of β-Ga<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> thin films and then offers an overview of the state-of-the-art in SBPD and FET devices. The present challenges for β-Ga<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> devices to penetrate the market in real-world applications are also considered, along with paths for future work.
Nanoscale imaging techniques that can be used to visualize and characterize local aggregations of the embedded nanoparticulates with sufficient resolution have attracted a great deal of interest. Ultrasonic scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and its derivatives are nondestructive techniques that can be used to elucidate subsurface nanoscale features and mechanical properties. Although many different ultrasonic methods have been used for subsurface imaging, the mechanisms and crucial parameters associated with the contrast formation in subsurface imaging are still unclear. Here, the impact of mechanical properties of the nanoparticulates/matrix, size of the nanoparticulates, buried depth of the nanoparticulates, and the ultrasonic excitation frequency on the developed ultrasonic SPM images have been investigated. To verify our theoretical model, experimental measurements of scanning near-field ultrasound holography (SNFUH) have been recreated in our theoretical analysis to reveal comparable variations in phase contrast measured in SNFUH while scanning over the nanoparticulates embedded in bacteria.
Structural and biological origins of light scattering in cells and tissue are still poorly understood. We demonstrate how this problem might be addressed through the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For biological samples, TEM image intensity is proportional to mass-density, and thus proportional to refractive index (RI). By calculating the autocorrelation function (ACF) of TEM image intensity of a thin-section of cells, we essentially maintain the nanoscale ACF of the 3D cellular RI distribution, given that the RI distribution is statistically isotropic. Using this nanoscale 3D RI ACF, we can simulate light scattering through biological samples, and thus guiding many optical techniques to quantify specific structures. In this work, we chose to use Partial Wave Spectroscopy (PWS) microscopy as a one of the nanoscale-sensitive optical techniques. Hela cells were prepared using standard protocol to preserve nanoscale ultrastructure, and a 50-nm slice was sectioned for TEM imaging at 6 nm resolution. The ACF was calculated for chromatin, and the PWS mean sigma was calculated by summing over the power spectral density in the visible light frequency of a random medium generated to match the ACF. A 1-µm slice adjacent to the 50-nm slice was sectioned for PWS measurement to guarantee identical chromatin structure. For 33 cells, we compared the calculated PWS mean sigma from TEM and the value measured directly, and obtained a strong correlation of 0.69. This example indicates the great potential of using TEM measured RI distribution to better understand the quantification of cellular nanostructure by optical methods.
We fabricated two dimensional photonic crystal structures in zinc oxide films with focused ion beam etching. Lasing is realized in the near ultraviolet frequency at room temperature under optical pumping. From the measurement of lasing frequency and spatial profile of the lasing modes, as well as the photonic band structure calculation, we conclude that lasing occurs in either localized or extended defect modes near the dielectric edge of photonic band gap. These defect modes originate from the structure disorder unintentionally introduced during the fabrication process. Fine tuning of lasing wavelength across 20nm range has been realized by varying the lattice constant of PhCS structure. A qualitative explanation for these PhCS lasers with self optimization of laser cavity quality factor has been proposed.
Limiting factors for short-wavelength QCL designs are discussed, and a model is described to predict the short-wavelength limit for strain-balanced QCL structures. High performance is predicted at wavelengths as short as 3.0mm based on a conduction band offset of 0.9 eV in the GaInAs/AlInAs materials. Recent work is presented on the growth of strained materials using gas-source molecular beam epitaxy to investigate the model predictions. Advanced material characterization, including HR-STEM, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, and wafer-scale uniformity and repeatability are demonstrated for strain-balanced QCL structures. Laser testing results are presented for QCLs operating at ~4.8mm, and lastly, predictions for further performance improvement at short wavelengths are discussed.
Lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) has recently become the method of choice to reduce the density of dislocations in heteroepitaxial GaN thin films, and is thus expected to lead to enhanced performance devices. We present here the LEO growth and characterization of GaN films by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Various substrates were used, including basal plane sapphire and oriented Si substrates. The steps in the LEO growth technology will be briefly reviewed. The characterization results will be discussed in detail. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were assessed through scanning, atomic and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, capacitance-voltage, deep level transient spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning cathodoluminenscence measurements. Single-step and double- step LEO GaN was achieved on sapphire. Similarly high quality LEO grown GaN films were obtained on sapphire and silicon substrates. Clear and dramatic reduction in the density of defects are observed in LEO grown materials using the various characterization techniques mentioned previously.