New applications in industrial, automotive and datacom applications require vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating at very high ambient temperatures at ultrahigh speed. We discuss issues related to high temperature performance of the VCSELs including temperature response and spectral properties. The influence of the gain-to-cavity wavelength detuning on temperature performance and spectral width of the VCSELs is discussed. Performance of the oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs with increased temperature stability capable of operating at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s at heat sink temperature of 150°C and 35Gbit/s at 130°C. Furthermore, opposite to previous studies of VCSELs with large gain-to-cavity detuning, which demonstrated strongly increased spectral width and a strong redistribution of the mode intensities upon current increase. VCSELs demonstrated in this work show good reproducibility of a narrow spectrum in a wide range of currents and temperatures. Such performance strongly improves the transmission distance over multi-mode fiber and can reduce mode partition noise during high speed operation.
Novel lasing modes in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-type structure based on an antiwaveguding cavity are studied. Such a VCSEL cavity has an effective refractive index in the cavity region lower than the average index of the distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). Such device in a stripe geometry does not support in–plane waveguiding mode, and all modes with a high Q-factor are exclusively VCSEL-like modes with similar near field profile in the vertical direction. A GaAlAs–based VCSEL structure studied contains a resonant cavity with multiple GaInAs quantum wells as an active region. The VCSEL structure is processed as an edge-emitting laser with cleaved facets and top contact representing a non–alloyed metal grid. Rectangular-shaped ~400x400 µm pieces are cleaved with perpendicular facets. The contact grid region has a total width of ~70 μm. 7 μm–wide metal stripes serve as non–alloyed metal contact and form periodic rectangular openings having a size of 10x40 μm. Surface emission through the windows on top of the chip is measured at temperatures from 90 to 380 K. Three different types of modes are observed. The longest wavelength mode (mode A) is a VCSEL–like mode at ~854 nm emitting normal to the surface with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the far field ~10°. Accordingly the lasing wavelength demonstrates a thermal shift of the wavelength of 0.06 nm/K. Mode B is at shorter wavelengths of ~840 nm at room temperature, emitting light at two symmetric lobes at tilt angles ~40° with respect to the normal to the surface in the directions parallel to the stripe. The emission wavelength of this mode shifts at a rate 0.22 nm/K according to the GaAs bandgap shift. The angle of mode B with respect to the normal reduces as the wavelength approaches the vertical cavity etalon wavelength and this mode finally merges with the VCSEL mode. Mode B hops between different lateral modes of the VCSEL forming a dense spectrum due to significant longitudinal cavity length, and the thermal shift of its wavelength is governed by the shift of the gain spectrum. The most interesting observation is Mode C, which shifts at a rate 0.06 nm/K and has a spectral width of ~1 nm. Mode C matches the wavelength of the critical angle for total internal reflection for light impinging from semiconductor chip on semiconductor/air interface and propagates essentially as an in–plane mode. According to modeling data we conclude that the lasing mode represents a coupled state between the TM–polarized surface–trapped optical mode and the VCSEL cavity mode. The resulting mode has an extended near field zone and low propagation losses. The intensity of the mode drastically enhances once is appears at resonance with Mode B. A clear threshold is revealed in the L–I curves of all modes and there is a strong competition of the lasing mechanisms once the gain maximum is scanned over the related wavelength range by temperature change.
The development of advanced OM5 wideband multimode fiber (WBMMF) allowing high modal bandwidth in the spectral range 840-950 nm motivates research in vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-lasers (VCSELs) at wavelengths beyond the previously accepted for short reach communications. Thus, short wavelength division multiplexing (SWDM) solutions can be implemented as a strategy to satisfy the increasing demand of data rate in datacenter environments. As an alternative solution to 850 nm parallel links, four wavelengths with 30 nm separation between 850 nm and 940 nm can be multiplexed on a single OM5-MMF, so the number of fibers deployed is reduced by a factor of four. In this paper high speed transmission is studied for VCSELs in the 850 nm – 950 nm range. The devices had a modulating bandwidth of ~26-28 GHz. 50 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) operation is demonstrated at each wavelength without preemphasis and equalization, with bit-error-rate (BER) below 7% forward error correction (FEC) threshold. Furthermore, the use of single-mode VCSELs (SM-VCSELs) as a way to mitigate the effects of chromatic dispersions in order to extend the maximum transmission distance over OM5 is explored. Analysis of loss as a function of wavelength in OM5 fiber is also performed. Significant decrease is observed, from 2.2 dB/km to less than 1.7 dB/km at 910 nm wavelength of the VCSEL.