An ROV constructed for the inspection of objects lying on the coastal sea floor has been described. In order to establish
if an object on the sea floor contains some sort of threat material (explosives, chemical agent), a system using a neutron
sensor installed within ROV has been developed. We describe the maritime properties of ROV and show that the
measured gamma spectra for commonly found ammunition charged with TNT explosives are dominated by C, O and Fe
peaks enabling the determination of the presence of explosives inside an ammunition shell.
The maintenance and repair of reinforced concrete structures, especially those submerged in the sea-water, require
effective inspection and monitoring techniques for assessing the state of corrosion in reinforcement material. An
underwater inspection system was developed which is able to monitor the reinforcement corrosion. The system is ROV
equipped with the sealed tube neutron generator (NG). By rotating the NG and by using the associated alpha particle
technique it is possible to measure the concrete cover depth together with the reinforcing bar diameter. The possibility to
estimate the carbon and chloride content in the concrete was investigated. Iron plates of different thickness, covered by 6
cm thick concrete block, were successfully detected and the thickness of the concrete cover was estimated. In addition,
reinforced bar of one and three centimeters in diameter was identified and measured.
Here we describe a prototype for non-destructive, in-situ, accurate and cost-effectively measurement
procedure of carbon in soil based on neutron activation analysis using 14 MeV tagged neutron beam.
This technology can be used for carbon baseline assessment on regional scale and for monitoring of
its surface and depth storage due to the changes in agricultural practices undertaken in order to
mitigate global climate change.
A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX
explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray
spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the
nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density.
Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant
can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs
like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.
In order to demonstrate the possibility of identifying the material within the objects on the sea floor we have performed
tests with the 14 MeV sealed tube neutron generator incorporated inside a small submarine, SURVEYOR, submerged in
the test basin filled with sea water. The materials inside the investigated objects were identified by measuring the gamma
ray spectra and by using the window on the measured alpha- gamma time spectrum. In addition, we describe our field
test facility and measurements done at this location in the framework of the EU FP7 project UNCOSS.
The existence of a data base of potentially explosive devices on the floor of coastal sea, especially ports and waterways,
is of paramount importance. However, the sea floor is littered by number of different objects and the water is not very
transparent on such locations. This makes the identification of objects extremely difficult even on known locations. We
discuss how to position the SURVEYOR when the object investigated for the presence of explosive has been identified
by other sensors (camera, sonar, magnetometer, etc.).
In order to demonstrate the possibility of identifying the material within ship's underwater hull, sunken ships
and other objects on the sea floor tests with the 14 MeV sealed tube neutron generator incorporated inside a
small submarine submerged in the test basin filled with sea water have been performed. Results obtained for
inspection of diesel fuel and explosive presence behind single and double hull constructions are presented.
While polluted sediments present a threat to the health of the marine ecosystem and indirectly to the public health,
ammunition dump sites being mostly unprotected and neglected, present a serious threat to human security,
environmental security and could be possible objects of misuse. Of special interest are sediments in ports and marinas.
Those are the places where any suspicious object needs to be analyzed for the presence of explosives and CW.
After analyzing several hundreds of sediment samples collected along the Adriatic coast, it has been found that they
could be grouped in 7 categories: bays, beaches, villages, ports, marinas - pier area, marina - service areas and others.
We have shown that the sediments in ports and harbors contain increased values of elements present in antifouling paints
(Cu, As, Zn and Pb). Their presence modifies the response of survey probes while screening the sea floor for the
presence of explosives and CW.
Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water is confirmed it is necessary to
establish if it contains explosive charge. This could be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater
vessel - "surveyor". When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system inspects the object for the presence of
the explosive by using neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator.
In order to evaluate various components and geometries a test basin containing sea water and sand was
constructed. Components of the neutron sensor were placed inside a waterproof stainless steel box which could be
moved up and down inside the basin. Measurements were performed by neutron generators with and without detection of
associated alpha particles. Low energy resolution gamma detectors (BGO and NaI) were used.
The sensor using neutron generator with detection of associated alpha particles was found to have a superior
performance since the detection of alpha particles defines the neutron beam which helps the reduction of the background.
The most common military explosives are characterized by H, C, N, O concentration values. Whole spectrum signature
could be used for the identification of the materials investigated.
The EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit project is part of the 6th European Union Framework Program,
and aims at developing a neutron inspection system for detecting threat materials (explosives, drugs, etc.) in cargo
containers. Neutron interaction in the container produces specific gamma-rays used to determine the chemical
composition of the inspected material. An associated particle sealed tube neutron generator is developed to allow precise
location of the interaction point by direction and time-of-flight measurements of the neutrons tagged by alpha-particles.
The EURITRACK project consists in developing: a transportable deuterium-tritium neutron generator including a
position sensitive alpha detector (8×8 matrix of YAP:Ce crystals coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier), fast neutron
and gamma-ray detectors, front-end electronics to perform coincidence and spectroscopic measurements, and an
integrated software which manages neutron generator and detectors positioning, data acquisition and analysis. Hardware
components have been developed and tested by the consortium partners. Current status of this work and provisional
performances of the system assessed by Monte Carlo calculations are presented.
The possibility of the detection of <> presence inside sea containers has been evaluated. The method proposed for detection of simultaneous presence of explosive and radioactive material inside the vehicle or container makes use of two active sensors (x-ray and neutron sensor) and one passive (neutron and gamma ray sensor). In the proposed system a commercial imaging device based on the x-ray radiography performs a fast scan of the container, identifies a "suspect" region and provides its coordinates to the neutron based device for the final "confirmatory" inspection. In the neutron sensor 14 MeV neutron beam defined by the detection of the associated alpha particles is being used. The object's nature is determined from passive, and neutron induced, gamma energy spectra measurements. Time-of-flight and gamma energy spectra have been measured for different explosives and simulants as well as for the number of radioactive materials hidden inside the vehicle and/or container.
The final goal of any radiotherapy project is to expose the tumor as the target to a lethal dose of ionizing radiation, sparing thereby the surrounding healthy tissues to a maximum extent. Precise treatment is nevertheless essential for cure, since the danger exists that the tumor might re-establish itself if every cancer cell is not destroyed. The conventional therapy treatments existing to date, e.g., surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, have been successful in curing some kinds of cancers, but still there are many exceptions. In the following, the progress of a promising therapy tool, called the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), which has made its dynamic evolution in recent years, is briefly described. The approach towards clinical trials with BNCT is described in detail.