Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) are increasingly applied in transportation systems (aircraft, railway, automotive) and infrastructure industries due to the good specific properties of high strength at low weight. Advanced FRP structures have to endure high mechanical and environmental loading. Therefore the durability and reliability depends much more on the micro mechanical properties as on the global strength. X-ray refraction topography is a powerful tool for the characterization of inner surfaces in materials. Applied to fiber composites the presented investigations give information about the mean diameter of the fibers, orientation and the quality of impregnation. Strong correlations were found between fiber matrix debonding and micro cracking and the stress state due to mechanical loading. Additionally a new method for a quantitative determination of transverse and shear strength in a complex laminate is presented. Therefore the X-Ray refraction technique is applied on-line during tensile load of specimens.