The need for additional IO bandwidth for data center device interconnection is well established. Optical interconnects can deliver required bandwidth along with energy and space efficiency at a cost that encourages adoption. To this end, we are developing an optical transceiver incorporating multimode VCSEL emitters in a coarse wavelength division multiplex (CWDM) system capable of transmission at 25Gbps per channel, 100Gbps/fiber, and a maximum aggregate bidirectional data rate of 1.2Tbps. Electrical connection to the transceiver can be made by solder reflow or LGA connector, and optical connection is made by means of a custom optical connector supporting CWDM transmission.
The use of a high-contrast grating (HCG) as the top mirror in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) allows for setting the resonance wavelength by the grating parameters in a post-epitaxial growth fabrication process. Using this technique, we demonstrate electrically driven multi-wavelength VCSEL arrays at ~980 nm wavelength. The VCSELs are GaAs-based and the suspended GaAs HCGs were fabricated using electron-beam lithography, dry etching and selective removal of an InGaP sacrificial layer. The air-coupled cavity design enabled 4-channel arrays with 5 nm wavelength spacing and sub-mA threshold currents thanks to the high HCG reflectance.
Directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are commonly used in short-reach optical interconnect applications. To enable efficient optical interconnect transceiver systems operating at data rates up to 25 Gb/s and beyond, cosimulation environments, which allow for the optimization of driver circuitry with accurate compact VCSEL models, are necessary. A comprehensive VCSEL model, which captures thermally dependent electrical and optical dynamics and provides direct current, small-, and large-signal simulation capabilities with self-consistency, is presented. The device’s electrical behavior is described with an equivalent circuit, which captures both large-signal operation and electrical parasitics, while the optical response is captured with a rate-equation-based model. Bias and temperature dependencies are incorporated into both key electrical and optical model parameters. Experimental verification of the model is performed at 25 Gb/s with a 990-nm VCSEL to study the impact of bias current level and substrate temperature.
A low cost, blind mate, injection molded optical backplane is presented. The optical backplane is comprised of 12
channel optical broadcast buses, operating at 10Gbps/channel with six blindmate optical output ports spaced 1U apart.
Sensing schemes using optical low coherence interferometry can offer advantages over the more conventional long coherence length interferometric techniques. These advantages are discussed as well as various techniques for single and multiplexed sensing arrangements.
This paper reviews optical reflectometry techniques that are capable of achieving spatial resolutions of less than 1 cm. Advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are discussed. A white light interferometry technique known as optical low-coherence reflectometry is emphasized. This technique has been used to obtain spatial resolutions on the order of tens of microns and reflection sensitivities as low as -148 dB.