Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have been widely used for dynamical analysis of molecular affinity,
bacterium screening, and drug discovery due to its advantages of label-free detection, dynamic interaction analysis, small
sample volume, and ultra sensitivity (feasibility of single molecular detection). Recently, SPR biosensing for cell
imaging known as SPR microscopy (SPRM) has attracted great attention due to the characteristics of SPR biosensors.
However, it is well known that the trends of sensitivity and spatial resolution are opposite to each other: Surface plasmon
waves (SPWs) with shorter wavelength which provides higher spatial resolution has less sensitivity. It is known that the
spatial resolution of SPRM is limited by the propagation length of surface plasmon wave (SPW) along the metaldielectric
interface. SPW excited by 632.8 nm light has the propagation length of 3 um. This length becomes longer
when a longer wavelength is selected. While most of SPR biosensors are built with 632.8 nm or longer wavelength for
high sensitivity, using 532nm light to excite SPWs is desired for submicron resolution since the propagation length is
around 150 nm. Different from current phase interrogation methods, the proposed phase interrogation method is highly
sensitive and suitable for CCD imaging. Although it is generally believed that SPWs with wavelength 532nm has poor
sensitivity, the experimental result showed that the setup can reach the sensitivity lower than 2×10<sup>-6</sup> RIU when
sucrose is used as the test sample.