The thermal or cold wake of the underwater vehicles will be formed at the sea surface in different region during sailing, then the underwater vehicles will be detected by airborne or space borne infrared detectors easily, which will imperil their security. A model between the detection probability and the Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) of the detectors, and the temperature difference between the wake and the sea surface, etc., was established and the evaluation of detection probability in different discrimination levels and other parameters, such as time, location, atmosphere, sea, detector performance, wake temperature, etc., was realized, and a software named Wake Detection of Underwater Vehicle by Infrared (WDPUV-IR) was developed. The results showed that the detection probability to the wake with high detector performance or large temperature difference or short detection distance or low discrimination level was relatively high, but it was difficult to detect targets with small temperature difference and size when the atmospheric transmittance value was low.
The thermal wake would be formed owing to the cooling water or exhaust heat discharged by ship, and the cold wake could be formed by the cool water in the lower part of sea stirred up by the ship propeller or vortexes. Owing to the difference of surface temperature and emissivity between the ship wake and the surrounding ocean the ship wake will be easily detected by the infrared detecting system. The wave of wake also could be detected by the difference of reflected radiance between the background and the Kelvin wake of ship. In this paper the simulating models of infrared imaging of ship wake are developed based on the selfradiation of wake, the reflected radiance of the sky and sun and the transmitted radiance of atmosphere, and the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are investigated. The results show that the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake can be really simulated by the models proposed in this paper. The effects of the detecting height, the angle of view, the NETD of detector and the temperature of wake on the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are studied. The temperature difference between the ship wake and surrounding ocean is a main fact which effects on the detecting distance. The infrared imaging signatures of ship wake in 8-14μm wave band is stronger than that in 2-5μm wave band whenever the temperature of ship wake is warmer or cooler than the surrounding ocean. Further, the infrared imaging of thermal wake is investigated in the homogenous water and temperature stratified water at different speed of a ship and different flow rate and depth of the discharged water in a water tank. The spreading and decaying laws of infrared signature of ship wake are obtained experimentally. The results obtained in this paper have an important application in the infrared remote sensing of ship wake.
The dynamic simulation of infrared signature of the deep groove ball bearing (DGBB) was carried out based on ANSYS/LS-DYNA. A finite element model of the ball-raceway contact of the was established, and the slide friction between the ball and the raceway was considered as the main reason of heat generation, and the impacts of radial load, rotation speed and the coefficient of friction to the heat generation and the infrared characteristics of distribution were discussed in detail. The relative errors between the simulation results and the theoretical calculation value are less than 10%, which proves this simulation model is accurate and reliable.