Based on dean-flow-coupled elasto-inertial effects, 3D particle focusing in a straight channel with asymmetrical expansion–contraction cavity arrays (ECCA channel) is achieved. First, the mechanism of particle focusing in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids was introduced. Then particle focusing was demonstrated experimentally in this channel with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids using three different sized particles (3.2μm, 4.8 μm, 13 μm), respectively. The influences of flow rates on focusing performance in ECCA channel were studied. Results show that in ECCA channel particles are focused on the cavity side in Newtonian fluid due to the synthesis effects of inertial and dean-drag force, whereas on the opposite cavity side in non-Newtonian fluid due to the addition of viscoelastic force. Compared with the focusing performance in Newtonian fluid, the particles are more easily and better focused in non- Newtonian fluid. A further advantage is three-dimensional (3D) particle focusing in non-Newtonian fluid is realized according to the lateral side view of the channel while only two-dimensional (2D) particle focusing can be achieved in Newtonian fluid. Conclusively, this Dean-flow-coupled elasto-inertial microfluidic device could offer a continuous, sheathless, and high throughput (>10000 s-1) 3D focusing performance, which may be valuable in various applications from high speed flow cytometry to cell counting, sorting, and analysis.
As the vibration of high speed train becomes fierce when the train runs at high speed, it is crucial to develop a novel suspension system to negotiate train’s vibration. This paper presents a novel suspension based on Magnetorheological fluid (MRF) damper and MRF based smart air spring. The MRF damper is used to generate variable damping while the smart air spring is used to generate field-dependent stiffness. In this paper, the two kind smart devices, MRF dampers and smart air spring, are developed firstly. Then the dynamic performances of these two devices are tested by MTS. Based on the testing results, the two devices are equipped to a high speed train which is built in ADAMS. The skyhook control algorithm is employed to control the novel suspension. In order to compare the vibration suppression capability of the novel suspension with other kind suspensions, three other different suspension systems are also considered and simulated in this paper. The other three kind suspensions are variable damping with fixed stiffness suspension, variable stiffness with fixed damping suspension and passive suspension. The simulation results indicate that the variable damping and stiffness suspension suppresses the vibration of high speed train better than the other three suspension systems.
Vibration is a source to induce uncertainty for the measurement. The traditional passive vibration control method has low efficiency and limited working conditions. The active vibration control method is not practical for its power demanding, complexity and instability. In this paper, a novel semi-active vibration control technology based on magnetorheological
(MR) fluid is presented with dual variable stiffness and damping capability. Because of the rheological behavior depending on the magnetic field intensity, MR fluid is used in many damping semi-active vibration control systems. The paper proposed a structure to allow the both overall damping and stiffness variable. The equivalent damping and stiffness of the structure are analyzed and the influences of the parameters on the stiffness and damping changing are further discussed.
Base isolation is the most popular seismic protection technique for civil engineering structures. However, research has revealed that the traditional base isolation system due to its passive nature is vulnerable to two kinds of earthquakes, i.e. the near-fault and far-fault earthquakes. A great deal of effort has been dedicated to improve the performance of the traditional base isolation system for these two types of earthquakes. This paper presents a recent research breakthrough on the development of a novel adaptive seismic isolation system as the quest for ultimate protection for civil structures, utilizing the field-dependent property of the magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). A novel adaptive seismic isolator was developed as the key element to form smart seismic isolation system. The novel isolator contains unique laminated structure of steel and MR elastomer layers, which enable its large-scale civil engineering applications, and a solenoid to provide sufficient and uniform magnetic field for energizing the field-dependent property of MR elastomers. With the controllable shear modulus/damping of the MR elastomer, the developed adaptive seismic isolator possesses a controllable lateral stiffness while maintaining adequate vertical loading capacity. In this paper, a comprehensive review on the development of the adaptive seismic isolator is present including designs, analysis and testing of two prototypical adaptive seismic isolators utilizing two different MRE materials. Experimental results show that the first prototypical MRE seismic isolator can provide stiffness increase up to 37.49%, while the second prototypical MRE seismic isolator provides amazing increase of lateral stiffness up to1630%. Such range of increase of the controllable stiffness of the seismic isolator makes it highly practical for developing new adaptive base isolation system utilizing either semi-active or smart passive controls.
This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigation of mechanical-electrical properties of conducting polymers based bimorph sensors. A material parameter, hCP, is proposed to represent linear relationship between induction charge and the applied external deformation. Based on this assumption, a constitutive equation for bimorph sensors under steady-state external loadings are constructed and then solved. Mechanical-electrical properties of bimorph sensors are experimentally studied using both vibration-amplitude sweep mode and frequency sweep mode. The material parameter hCP, is identified by comparing theoretical analysis and experimental results. The applications of conducting polymers based bimorph sensors in smart structures are also discussed.
This paper presents synthesis and characterization of polypyrrole based conducting polymers in terms of electronic and mechanical disciplines. Using the electrochemical polymerization approach, conducting polymer samples with different dimensions (length, width, and thickness) was fabricated. For each sample, both sinusoidal and step excitations were used to study its mechanical and electrical properties. An equivalent electric circuit based on constant phase element (CPE) is proposed to model such responses. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method was used to identify the relationship between the dimensions of conducting polymers and model elements parameters.