Using hybrid density functional theory, we investigate the influence on electronic structure of common defects and impurities in tungsten oxide (WO<sub>3</sub>). As an easily reducible perovskite with the A-site atom missing, high concentrations of foreign dopants and oxygen deficiencies are possible. Our calculations show that both oxygen vacancies and alkali dopants are shallow donors, and we explore the physical origins for this behavior. In particular, we examine whether oxygen vacancies can give rise to localized states or small polarons. Our results show that in crystalline material no such charge localization occurs. We discuss how these results impact electrical conductivity and optical properties.