Range cameras and terrestrial laser scanners provide 3D geometric information by directly measuring the range
from the sensor to the object. Calibration of the ranging component has not been studied systematically yet,
and this paper provides a first overview. The proposed approaches differ in the object space features used for
calibration, the calibration models themselves, and possibly required environmental conditions. A number of
approaches are reviewed within this framework and discussed. For terrestrial laser scanners, improvement in
accuracy by a factor up to two is typical, whereas range camera calibration still lacks a proper model, and large
systematic errors typically remain.
This article concentrates on the integrated self-calibration of both the interior orientation and the distance
measurement system of a time-of-flght range camera (photonic mixer device). Unlike other approaches that
investigate individual distortion factors separately, in the presented approach all calculations are based on the
same data set that is captured without auxiliary devices serving as high-order reference, but with the camera being
guided by hand. Flat, circular targets stuck on a planar whiteboard and with known positions are automatically
tracked throughout the amplitude layer of long image sequences. These image observations are introduced into
a bundle block adjustment, which on the one hand results in the determination of the interior orientation.
Capitalizing the known planarity of the imaged board, the reconstructed exterior orientations furthermore allow
for the derivation of reference values of the actual distance observations. Eased by the automatic reconstruction
of the cameras trajectory and attitude, comprehensive statistics are generated, which are accumulated into a
5-dimensional matrix in order to be manageable. The marginal distributions of this matrix are inspected for the
purpose of system identification, whereupon its elements are introduced into another least-squares adjustment,
finally leading to clear range correction models and parameters.