In three-dimensional (3D) optical elements, light interacts with the element throughout its entire volume (as opposed to a discrete set of surfaces, which is done in traditional optics.) This allows for more degrees of freedom in shaping the optical response, in particular creating shift-variant responses. We have used this property in a number of ways to acquire 3D object information from both reflective and fluorescent objects under a variety of illumination conditions, including laser-line-scan, rainbow and uniform white light. The key benefits of using 3D optics are summarized as excellent resolution over long working distances, reduced or completely eliminated scanning, and simultaneous spectral
imaging. Our research addresses the physics of 3D optical elements, their fabrication, and computational methods for maximal information extraction. In this paper, we first overview the properties of 3D optical elements and then we describe a fabrication and assembly method. Our approach, termed Nanostructured Origami, is appropriate for manufacturing micro-scale optical components which also include sub-wavelength optical elements and non-optical components, e.g. energy storage.
Nanostructured Origami 3D Fabrication and Assembly Process is a method of manufacturing 3D nanostructured devices using exclusively 2D micro- and nanofabrication techniques. The origami approach consists of first patterning a large 2D membrane and then folding the membrane along predefined regions to obtain the final 3D configuration. We report on the materials, actuation, and modeling aspects of building an origami structure. Experimental results from fabricated devices as well as future applications of the technique are also presented.
Nanostructured OrigamiTM 3D Fabrication and Assembly Process is a
method of manufacturing 3D nanosystems using exclusively 2D litho tools. The 3D structure is obtained by folding a nanopatterned 2D substrate. We report on the materials, actuation, and modeling aspects of the manufacturing process, and present experimental results from fabricated structures.