FERMI is the first user facility based upon an externally seeded free-electron laser (FEL) that delivers a coherent and tunable UV radiation (down to 4 nm at the fundamental) in a number of different configurations. A microbunching instability (MBI) developing in the bunch compressors and in the rest of the linac can degrade the quality of the high brightness electron beam sufficiently to reduce the FEL output intensity and spectral brightness. A laser heater installed in the low energy (100 MeV) part of the FERMI accelerator increases the local energy spread to provide Landau damping against this instability. In this paper we summarize the main results obtained with the FERMI laser heater since it commissioning in 2012. We present the measurement of the reduction of the incoherent energy spread at the linac exit induced by the heating of the electron beam at the beginning of the linac. We also discuss the positive effects of such heating upon the emission of coherent optical transition radiation and the FEL performances both in terms of intensity and spectrum. Moreover, we report about results that have been used to experimentally demonstrate that for transversely uniform heating the local energy spread augmentation is characterized by a non-Gaussian distribution that can be preserved up to the FEL undulator entrance with a significant impact on the performance of high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) FELs, especially at soft x-ray wavelengths.
We propose the use of a ultra-relativistic electron beam interacting with a few-cycle, intense laser pulse and an intense pulse of the coherent x-rays to produce a multi-MW intensity, x-ray pulses
approximately 100 attoseconds in duration. Due to a naturally-occurring frequency chirp, these pulses can be further temporally compressed.
We describe the design concepts for a potential future source of femtosecond x-ray pulses based on synchrotron radiation production in a recirculating electron linac. Using harmonic cascade free-electron lasers (FEL's) and spontaneous emission in short-period, narrow-gap insertion devices, a broad range of photon energies are available with tunability from EUV to hard x-ray regimes. Photon pulse durations are controllable and range from 10 fs to 200 fs, with fluxes 107-1012 photons per pulse. Full spatial and temporal coherence is obtained for EUV and soft X-rays. A fiber laser master oscillator and stabilized timing distribution scheme are proposed to synchronize accelerator rf systems and multiple lasers throughout the facility, allowing timing synchronization between sample excitation and X-ray probe of approximately 20-50 fs.
The mechanism of nonlinear harmonic generation in the exponential gain regime, which is driven by bunching at the fundamental wavelength, may provide a path toward both enhancing and extending the usefulness of an x-ray free- electron laser (FEL) facility. Related exotic generation schemes, which exploit properties of harmonic production in various undulator topologies, have been discussed both in the past and more recently. Using three different numerical simulation codes, we explore the possible utility of such schemes (e.g., harmonic afterburners and biharmonic undulators) at future light source facilities.
The FELs based on the rf accelerator-recuperator and the electron outcoupling is promising for obtaining average output power of hundreds of kilowatts. We present basic considerations for the system stability and performance optimization for this scheme.
This paper investigates various properties of the 'microspikes' associated with self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) in a short wavelength free-electron laser (FEL). Using results from the 2-D numerical simulation code GINGER, we confirm theoretical predictions such as the convective group velocity in the exponential gain regime. In the saturated gain regime beyond the initial saturation, we find that the average radiation power continues to grow with an approximately linearly dependence upon undulator length. Moreover, the spectrum significantly broadens and shifts in wavelength to the redward direction, with P(omega) approaching a constant, asymptotic value. This is in marked contrast to the exponential gain regime where the spectrum steadily narrows, P(omega) grows, and the central wavelength remains constant with z. Via use of a spectrogram diagnostic S(omega, t), it appears that the radiation pattern in the saturated gain regime is composed of an ensemble of distinct 'sinews' whose widths (Delta) (lambda) remain approximately constant but whose central wavelengths can 'chirp' by varying a small extent with t.
We analyze and present numerical simulations of the so-called electron output scheme applied to the SELENE proposal of using a high power FEL to illuminate satellite solar cells. In this scheme, a first stage FEL oscillator bunches the electron beam while a second stage `radiator' extracts high power radiation. Our analysis suggests only in the case where the radiator employs a long, tapered undulator will the electron output scheme produce a significant increase in extraction efficiency over what is obtainable from a simple, single-stage oscillator, 1- and 2-D numerical simulations of a 1.7 micrometers FEL employing the electron output scheme show that large bunching fractions at the output of the oscillator stage but only approximately 1% extraction efficiency from the radiator stage.