The military planning process utilizes simulation to determine the appropriate course of action (COA) that will achieve a
campaign end state. However, due to the difficulty in developing and generating simulation level COAs, only a few
COAs are simulated. This may have been appropriate for traditional conflicts but the evolution of warfare from attrition
based to effects based strategies, as well as the complexities of 4th generation warfare and asymmetric adversaries have
placed additional demands on military planners and simulation. To keep pace with this dynamic, changing environment,
planners must be able to perform continuous, multiple, "what-if" COA analysis. Scenario management and generation
are critical elements to achieving this goal. An effects based scenario generation research project demonstrated the
feasibility of automated scenario generation techniques which support multiple stove-pipe and emerging broad scope
simulations. This paper will discuss a case study in which the scenario generation capability was employed to support
COA simulations to identify plan effectiveness. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of using multiple simulation
runs to evaluate the effectiveness of alternate COAs in achieving the overall campaign (metrics-based) objectives. The
paper will discuss how scenario generation technology can be employed to allow military commanders and mission
planning staff to understand the impact of command decisions on the battlespace of tomorrow.
Effects based operations (EBO) are proving to be a vital part of current concepts of operations in military missions and consequently need to be an integral part of current generation wargames. EBO is an approach to planning, executing and assessing military operations that focuses on obtaining a desired strategic outcome or “effect” on the adversary instead of merely attacking targets or simply dealing with objectives. Alternatively, the emphasis of conventional wargames is focused on attrition based modeling and is incapable of assessing effects and their contribution to the overall mission objectives. The focus of this paper is the integration of an EBO modeling scheme  within a force-on-force simulator. In this paper, the authors review the EBO modeling capability and describe its’ integration within the wargame; including the integration of center of gravity (COG) models, the realization of indirect and cascading effects, the impact of the COG models on simulation control files, and the use of COG models to link the simulation commander with assets. A simple scenario demonstrating indirect and cascading effects is described and the results are presented.
Effects-based operations (EBO) are proving to be a vital part of current concepts of operations in military missions and consequently need to be an integral part of current generation wargames. EBO focuses on the producing effects from military activities, as opposed to the direct result of attacking targets. Alternatively, the emphasis of conventional wargames is focused on attrition-based modeling and is incapable of assessing effects and their contribution to the overall mission objectives. For wargames to be effective, they must allow users to evaluate multiple ways to accomplish the same goal with a combination of direct, indirect and cascading events (actions). The focus of this paper is to describe the development of a methodology for the implementation of EBO concepts into modern wargames. The design approach was to develop a generic methodology and demonstrate how simulation objects can incorporate EBO capabilities. The authors will illustrate the application of the methodology utilizing an EBO scenario example, which was developed to test the system.