Quantum communication which is our ability to transmission quantum information between remote locations is a primitive operation necessary for a future quantum internet. Quantum communication at its heart relies on establishing entangled links between remote locations which can then be used to teleport quantum data. Typically channel losses limit the distance that photons can be sent without some form of quantum repeater networks which segments the channel into smaller pieces. Entanglement distribution, purification and swapping operations then allows one to create high fidelity entangled pairs between the desired remote locations. Several generations of quantum repeaters have been proposed with dramatically increasing performance but the ultimate network performance is limited by channel losses which are typically fundamental in nature. Here we introduce the concept of quantum multiplexing, which allows us to both minimize the number of photons needed in the entanglement distribution processing but also enhance the quality of the entangled pairs generated. In this presentation we discuss the potential performance gains our quantum multiplexing approach gives.
The efficient generation, coherent control, manipulation and measurement of quantum states of light and matter is at the core of quantum technologies. Hybrid quantum systems, where one combines the best parts of multiple individual quantum systems together without their weaknesses, are now seen as a way to engineer composite quantum systems with the properties one requires. This would in principle allow one to probe new physical regimes. However, the issue until recently has been that hybridization has not resulted in systems with superior properties. Recently however we [Nature Photonics 11, 3639 (2016)] have shown an increased coherence times in hybrid system is of composed nitrogen-vacancy centers strongly coupled to a superconducting microwave resonator. This demonstration has enabled this kind of hybrid system to enter the regime where quantum nonlinearities are present. We discuss several types of nonlinearity effects that can be naturally explored (bistability and superradiance). Our work paves the way for the creation of spin squeezed states, novel metamaterials, long-lived quantum multimode memories and solid-state microwave frequency combs. Further in the longer term it may enable the exploration of many-body phenomena in new cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments.
In this work, we describe a simple module that could be ubiquitous for quantum information based applications. The basic modules comprises a single NV<sup>-</sup> center in diamond embedded in an optical cavity, where the cavity mediates interactions between photons and the electron spin (enabling entanglement distribution and efficient readout), while the nuclear spins constitutes a long-lived quantum memories capable of storing and processing quantum information. We discuss how a network of connected modules can be used for distributed metrology, communication and computation applications. Finally, we investigate the possible use of alternative diamond centers (SiV/GeV) within the module and illustrate potential advantages.
It has long been known that quantum networks will enable a whole new range of communication tasks to be undertaken. The simplest is quantum key distribution (QKD) and are commercially available but currently only operate securely over distances around 100 km. A significant advance has been the development of mdiQKD, a scheme where Alice and Bob send one photon at a time to an intermediate node where a Bell measurement is performed. This Bell measurement can only succeed when both Alice and Bob photons arrive at the same time and so the key rate is limited by the exponential losses in both fibres. It limits the practical distance keys can be generated to less than 400km. Spatial or temporal multiplexing is a natural solution to this where one stores the photons that independently arrive from Alice and Bob. Only when the immediate node has both does it perform the Bell measurement. This means we are effectively only limited by fibres losses in one half of the channel. It however means one requires quantum memories at this immediate node, a technically challenging feat and one that changes the general resources used in QKD schemes. In our spatial multiplexed approach, we propose the use of an “all photonic non-destructive measurement (QND)” to herald whether the photon has arrived successfully from either Alice or Bob. Optical switches can them be used to route these photons to the Bell measurement, meaning that we are only limited by the channel loss between either Alice and the immediate node or Bob and the intermediate node, but not both. Further this can achieved without the use of quantum memories at all. Only optical switches, single-photon sources, photon detectors, and passive feed-forward techniques are required. Our approach can be applied naturally to entanglement distribution and so has applications beyond QKD.
We present new quantum repeater architectures based on optical modules with NV diamond centers to highlight how physical properties of these optical modules change the operations, performance and limitations of the quantum repeater systems.We focus on two different approaches to construct optical modules, and see how the properties of modules propagate to the total system. The first approach to construct the optical module is to utilize the conditional refection dependent on the electron state of the single NV center in the cavity, and the other approach is to use absorption induced teleportation from an incoming photon to the nuclear spin of the NV center.
To characterize a quantum repeater system, the processes and protocols associated with photons are important.As photons are not reliable as an information carrier, i.e. quantum manipulations associated with photons are not deterministic, and the protocols and manipulations rely on post-selection to keep the fidelity of the quantum information.Post-selection is essential in quantum communications based on photons to maintain the fidelity of the communication, however it restricts the architecture of the system to be tolerant to probabilistic gates. This factor is cost intensive and is the key for the architectures to be scalable.We show that the details of how the scalability of the architectures can be affected by physical parameters of the modules.
Proc. SPIE. 9225, Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging XII
KEYWORDS: Superposition, Photodetectors, Signal attenuation, Chemical species, Single photon, Quantum information, Quantum communications, Quantum information processing, Quantum memory, Quantum computing
We present the pipe-lined design of a quantum communications network that neither requires the establishment of entanglement between remote locations nor the use of quantum memories. It can be shown that the rate at which quantum data can be transmitted through the network is only limited by the time required to perform efficient local gate operations. This packet switched scheme therefore has the potential to provide higher communications rates than previously thought possible.
We present a quantum repeater architecture using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) diamond based quantum information devices. The NV-diamond based device consists of a single negatively charged NV (NV<sup>-</sup>) center and an optical cavity. The electron of the NV center is an interface to light to be used to distribute long-distance entanglement as well as entanglement bonds for cluster state operation at each nodes. The nuclear spin-1=2 of nitrogen 15 can be used as memory. Based on this device, A scheme with as small as 10 devices to a scalable architecture is constructed, showing the necessary node technology as well as the performance such quantum communication systems.
The development of quantum networks requires stable quantum bits with which we can process, store and transport quantum information. A significant bottleneck in their performance is the ability to perform reliable local gates. It is well known that superconducting flux qubits have excellent processing ability while electron-spin nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond are a natural memory and optical interface. Hybridization of these two systems thus presents the promise of an effective and efficient way to perform local gates. Here we report on the first step towards this: quantum state transfer between these systems.
Until recently, it was believed that long-lived quantum memories were necessary for long-distance quantum communication. However, by using error-correction codes in an efficient way—specifically, by correcting for photon loss—it is possible to transmit quantum information over long distances without quantum memories. For quantum computation, recent architectures for topological quantum computation indicate that the simplest large-scale structure could be memory-less. While a quantum memory may no longer be an essential resource for quantum networks, it could nonetheless be a key device in the development of quantum information technology. However, it is still not clear what benefits a functioning device could bring to quantum information systems, largely due to a lack of detailed models. Recently we have developed a detailed model for a quantum network based on a simple device designed to act as a building block for a full system architecture. The device is based on an optical cavity containing a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. This model naturally integrates quantum communication with computation, and using this model we can assess quantitatively the costs and benefits of quantum memories. With or without quantum memories, it is necessary for us to preserve quantum information for a long period of time in either communication or computation.
We study the effects of continuous measurement of the field mode during the collapse and revival of spin Schr¨odinger cat states in the Tavis-Cummings model of N qubits (two-level quantum systems) coupled to a field mode. We show that a compromise between relatively weak and relatively strong continuous measurement will not completely destroy the collapse and revival dynamics while still providing enough signal-to-noise resolution to identify the signatures of the process in the measurement record. This type of measurement would in principle allow the verification of the occurrence of the collapse and revival of a spin Schr¨odinger cat state.
In the paper we will discuss the design of a long range quantum repeater network and the components required
to realize it. We being by first reviewing the general approaches taken for distributing entanglement over long
ranges and identify general limitations caused by such approaches. We present a new entanglement generation
scheme that permits the near deterministic establishment of entangled links between nearest neighbor repeater
nodes and can be used to construct an arbitrary topology quantum network. The creation rate is shown at worst
to be a function of the maximum distance between any two adjacent quantum repeaters rather than of the entire
length of the network.
In this paper we provide a review of the perpetual optical topological quantum computer, a large scale quantum
architecture utilising a single quantum component. We will examine the building block of this architecture, the
photonic module, the original architecture design and a modified design which allows for the entire computer to
be constructed solely from a single component. Given the extraordinary specificity of this design we can provide
a pessimistic resource analysis, utilising deliberately bad circuit designs and arrangements to determine the size
and speed of a large scale factoring engine.
Coding data bits in the phase or polarisation state of light allows us to exploit the wave particle duality for novel communication protocols. Using this principle the first practical quantum communication systems have been built. These are the fibre and free-space quantum cryptography apparatus used for secure exchange of keys. To date free space key exchange has aimed at long range with 144km range achieved and future experiments aiming to extend this range to 1000km exchanging keys with low earth orbit satellites. At the other end of the spectrum we are developing low cost hand held systems. These systems could be an effective way for the user to generate a store of secrets shared with a central repository. These secrets can then be used up to protect a wide variety of sensitive classical communications. Examples include on-line PIN protection for consumer transactions and password protection in secure access schemes.
Moore's Law has set great expectations that the performance/price ratio of commercially available semiconductor
devices will continue to improve exponentially at least until the end of the next decade. Although the physics
of nanoscale silicon transistors alone would allow these expectations to be met, the physics of the metal wires
that connect these transistors will soon place stringent limits on the performance of integrated circuits. We
will describe a Si-compatible global interconnect architecture - based on chip-scale optical wavelength division
multiplexing - that could precipitate an "optical Moore's Law" and allow exponential performance gains until
the transistors themselves become the bottleneck. Based on similar fabrication techniques and technologies, we
will also present an approach to an optically-coupled quantum information processor for computation beyond
Moore's Law, encouraging the development of practical applications of quantum information technology for
commercial utilization. We present recent results demonstrating coherent population trapping in single N-V
diamond color centers as an important first step in this direction.
Processing information quantum mechanically is known to enable new communication and computational scenarios that cannot be accessed with conventional information technology (IT). We present here a new approach to scalable quantum computing---a "qubus computer"---which realizes qubit measurement and quantum gates through interacting qubits with a quantum communication bus mode. The qubits could be "static" matter qubits or "flying" optical qubits, but the scheme we focus on here is particularly suited to matter qubits. Universal two-qubit quantum gates may be effected by schemes which involve measurement of the bus mode, or by schemes where the bus disentangles automatically and no measurement is needed. This approach enables a parity gate between qubits, mediated by a bus, enabling near-deterministic Bell state measurement and entangling gates. Our approach is therefore the basis for very efficient, scalable QIP, and provides a natural method for distributing such processing, combining it with quantum communication.
We report on two experiments implementing quantum communications primitives in linear optics systems: a
secure Quantum Random Bit Generator (QRBG) and a multi-qubit gate based on Two-Photon Multiple-Qubit
(TPMQ) quantum logic. In the first we use photons to generate random numbers and introduce and implement
a physics-based estimation of the sequence randomness as opposed to the commonly used statistical tests. This
scheme allows one to detect and neutralize attempts to eavesdrop or influence the random number sequence. We
also demonstrate a C-SWAP gate that can be used to implement quantum signature and fingerprinting protocols.
A source of momentum-entangled photons, remote state preparation, and a C-SWAP gate are the ingredients
used for this proof-of-principle experiment. While this implementation cannot be used in field applications due to the limitations of TPMQ logic, it provides useful insights into this protocol.
We describe how a quantum non-demolition device based on electromagnetically-induced transparency in solidstate atom-like systems could be realized. Such a resource, requiring only weak optical nonlinearities, could potentially enable photonic quantum information processing (QIP) that is much more efficient than QIP based on linear optics alone. As an example, we show how a parity gate could be constructed. A particularly interesting physical system for constructing devices is the nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond, but the excited-state structure for this system is unclear in the existing literature. We include some of our latest spectroscopic results that indicate that the optical transitions are generally not spin-preserving, even at zero magnetic field, which allows the realization of a Λ-type system.
Processing information quantum mechanically is known to enable new
communication and computational scenarios that cannot be accessed with conventional information technology (IT). It is known that such quantum processing can be performed with linear optical techniques, measurement and feed-forward. However, here the gates are intrinsically probabilistic and so scaling up such an approach requires considerable qubit resources. Here we present an alternative approach to optical QIP, based on the use of weak cross-Kerr non-linearities and highly efficient homodyne measurements. This approach enables a parity gate between optical qubits, mediated by an additional optical probe mode, enabling near-deterministic Bell state measurement and entangling gates. Our approach is therefore the basis for very efficient, scalable optical QIP, and provides a natural method for distributing such processing, combining it with quantum communication.
We review our work on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) as a potentially key enabling science for few-qubit Quantum Information Technology (QIT). EIT systems capable of providing two-qubit phase shifts as large as pi are possible in a condensed matter system such as NV-diamond, but the potentially large residual absorption necessarily arising under this condition significantly reduces the fidelity of a nonlinear optical gate based on EIT. Instead, we emphasize that a universal set of quantum gates can be constructed using EIT systems that provide cumulative phase shifts (and residual absorptions) that are much smaller than unity. We describe a single-photon quantum nondemolition detector and a two-photon parity gate as basic elements of a nonlinear optical quantum information processing system.
Quantum optics has proved a fertile field for experimental tests of
quantum information science, from experimental verification of the
violation of the Bell inequalities to quantum teleportation. However it was long believed that quantum optics would not provide a practical path to efficient and scaleable quantum computation, and most current efforts to achieve a scaleable quantum computer have focussed on solid state implementations. This orthodoxy was challenged recently when Knill et al. showed that given single photon sources and single photon detectors, linear optics alone would suffice to implement efficient quantum computation. While this result is surprising, the complexity of the optical networks required is daunting. In this talk we propose an efficient scheme which is elegant in its simplicity. We indicate how fundamental single and two qubit gates can be achieved. By encoding the quantum information in multi-photon coherent states, rather than single photon states, simple optical manipulations acquire unexpected power. As an application of this new information processing ability we investigate
a class of high precision measurements. We show how superpositions of
coherent states allow displacement measurements at the Heisenberg limit. Entangling many superpositions of coherent states offers a significant advantage over a single mode superposition states with the same mean photon number.
We review recent theoretical progress in finding ways to do quantum
processing with linear optics, non-classical input states and
conditional measurements. We focus on a dual rail photonic scheme and a
single rail coherent state scheme.