Data collections were conducted using the AN/PSS-14 mine detector on three beach areas in Florida. A few samples of inert anti-tank (AT) and anti-personnel (AP) mines were buried at Jacksonville Beach, Cocoa Beach, and Clearwater Beach. The mines were buried in a variety of sand conditions varying from dry to saturated. The saturated sand conditions included the surf zone with up to two feet of water surge over the buried mine area. Test results indicate a good probability of detection (Pd) of all the buried mines by the AN/PSS-14 Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) and Metal Detector (MD), with a low false alarm rate. This paper will detail test conditions under which the mines were buried, soil dielectric and attenuation parameters measured versus water content in each condition, and interpretation of data in such highly attenuated (400-600 dB attenuation per meter) and extremely conductive soil. In addition, the theory of evanescent electromagnetic waves will be discussed in terms of the performance.
Proc. SPIE. 5415, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets IX
KEYWORDS: Radar, Principal component analysis, Standoff detection, Detection and tracking algorithms, Calibration, Metals, Automatic target recognition, Ground penetrating radar, Land mines, General packet radio service
Outstanding landmine detection has been achieved by the Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS system) in government-run field tests. The use of anomaly detection using principal component analysis (PCA) on the return of ground penetrating radar (GPR) coupled with metal detection is the key to the success of the HSTAMIDS-like system algorithms. Indications of nonlinearities and asymmetries in Humanitarian Demining (HD) data point to modifications to the current PCA algorithm that might prove beneficial. Asymmetries in the distribution of PCA projections of field data have been quantified in Humanitarian Demining (HD) data. An initial correction for the observed asymmetries has improved the False Alarm Rate (FAR) on this data.
The assumption is that removal of elements of clutter from the frequency stepped ground penetration radar (GPR) signal data will improve the performance of any detection algorithms. Clutter comes in the form of internal system interference, cross-coupling signals between antennas, and soil artifacts (soil layers, rocks, non-homogeneous material, grass, etc.). The assumption is that the frequency stepped radar has a number of steps that cover a fixed bandwidth, and that the radar is phase coherent from step to step and over time. Processing consists of transforming the signal data into the spatial-frequency dimension and applying a set of filters, and then transforming into the range (bandwidth compression) dimension. The developed filters remove spectral components that are associated with signal returns from clutter elements. Examples using data from the US Army AN/PSS-14 mine detection system operating over inert mines are presented.
A multi-sensor approach to buried object discrimination has been developed by Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) as a practical successor to currently prevalent metal detectors. The CRC multi-sensor unit integrates with and complements standard metal detectors to enable the detection of low- metallic and non-metallic anti-tank and anti-personnel mines as well as the older metallic-jacketed mines. The added sensors include Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) and Infrared (IR). The GPR consists of a lightweight (less than 1 LB) snap on antenna unit, a belt attached electronics unit (less than 5 LB) and batteries. The IR consists of a lightweight (less than 3 LB) head mounted camera, a heads-up virtual display, and a belt attached processing unit (Figure 1.1). The output from Automatic Target Recognition algorithms provide the detection of metallic and non-metallic mines in real-time on the IR display and as an audio alert from the GPR and MD.
This paper describes the specifications and capabilities of the integrated tracking unit (ITU) and its multiple applications are presented. The original ITU was developed by Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) for several federal law enforcement agencies over a four-year period and it has been used for friendly and unfriendly vehicle and person position tracking. The ITU has been down-sized to reduce its physical size, weight, and power requirements with respect to the first generation unit. The ITU consists of a global positioning system (GPS) receiver for precise position location and a cellular phone to transmit voice and data to a PC base station with a modem interface. This paper describes the down-sizing of the unit introduced in CRC's 'An Integrated Tracking Unit for Multiple Applications' paper presented at the 1995 Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center's symposium in Nashua, NH. This paper provides a description of the ITU and tested applications.
The measurement results from the Technology Assessment for the Close-in Man Portable Mine Detection (CIMMD) program at Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia, of the Hand Buried Ordanance and Mine Detection System (HBO-MDS) are presented. The HBO-MDS was developed by Coleman Research Corportion (CRC) under a contract with the US Army Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate, Mine Detection Division.
This paper describes site measurements and resulting images of buried objects made with the Earth Penetration Radar Imaging System (EPRIS) developed by Coleman Research Corporation (CRC). EPRIS makes use of frequency stepped radar technology and synthetic aperture imaging algorithms for nonintrusive characterization and imaging of buried objects, contamination, and geological or hydrological features. This paper is an extension or follow-up to CRC's EPRIS paper presented at last year's OE/AEROSPACE convention in Orlando, FL. It gives a brief description of the EPRIS system and contains the results from several DOE site surveys. These results include 2D and 3D images of buried test targets as well as images of actual buried waste and hydrological or geological features. The paper concludes with the recommendations or suggestions that should be followed up on future efforts.
The development status of two Stepped-Frequency Ground Penetration Radars (SFGPR) is presented. The equipment described includes a unit that operates over the 1 to 3 GHz RF band and is intended for shallow buried mine detection, and a unit that operates over the 150 MHz to 1 GHz RF band and intended for buried waste site characterization to depths of 7 meters. The SFGPR uses coherent high-range resolution radar processing methods to develop a radar- surface-position by slant range (depth) display. An extension of coherent synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging techniques that can yield 2-D and 3-D subsurface imaging is also presented. Results achieved to date are presented in 2-D for the high-frequency system and 3- D for the low-frequency system.