The conventional non-destructive inspection of a pipe by an ultrasonic wave has low inspection efficiency because it is a technique that uses a longitudinal wave or transverse wave which propagates in the thickness direction of a pipe with a smaller area than the size of the ultrasonic sensor. However, a guide wave is provided with the characteristic of long range propagation in the axis direction of a pipe, so it is possible to detect many defects over a large pipe area at once. At present, there is a technique to generate a guide wave using a piezoelectric element (PZT). Such a transducer has some difficulties in industrial applications, which requires a high viscosity couplant. Therefore, we tried to develop a guide wave inspection system that uses an electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer (EMAT) which does not require any couplant. First, we confirmed that a guide wave can be transmitted and received in an aluminum pipe by a polarized shear horizontal transverse wave-EMAT, and we have confirmed the most suitable transmission and reception EMAT’s specification and the most suitable drive conditions to generate the L, T and F-mode guide waves. Finally, the detection performance has been evaluated by the developed system.
This study presents the experimental results completed to compare both performance of a special ultrasonic sensor and a Hall Effect sensor under the same measurement condition in order to assess the effectiveness, the proper installation, the convenience of use, and the costs of both methods. A special ultrasonic sensor is generally called Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) which consists of magnet and sensor coil. It was tuned that ultrasonic wave with 1 MHz can be injected and detected. Sensor coils were separated to the transmitter and the receiver and placed at two surfaces of the specimen (top and bottom) to set the Lorentz force in parallel direction of the specimen surfaces . This type of EMAT can generate the transverse wave (shear ware) for analyzing the wavelength from measurement. In application, the output voltage from Hall Effect sensor was then compared to the reference voltage in comparator circuit and then amplified the difference to gain 20 times and converted to frequency domain for better resolution at the specific set point of 8 kHz. From experiment, use of Hall Effect sensor exhibited high efficiency over that of EMAT method due to less complexity of the system, lower cost, as well as ease and convenience of installation. Moreover, application of EMAT method with the small size of specimen would lead the error and standard deviation by up to 4.51% and 0.279, respectively compared to that of Hall Effect sensor that can exhibit less error and standard deviation by about 0.24% and 0.013, respectively.