A bandwidth reconfigurable and passband switchable filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Based on the same structure, the filter can realize a single broadened response, two passbands with tunable bandwidth or multiband filter. A single broadened response adopts binary phase-shift keying modulation, in which the bandwidth is related to the modulation data pattern. By using the programmable single-sideband suppression carrier signals, the position of the optical lines can be settled down properly and the corresponding arbitrary passbands are constructed. The proposed filter is flexible, which offers possibilities to process multitype microwave signals simultaneously.