Since Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data are not available yet, we used daily MODIS Chlorophyll a (Chla)
data to illustrate how GOCI data can be used for physical and biological interaction research. For physical features, we
used the daily New Generation Sea Surface Temperature (NGSST) for the Yellow Sea, the South Sea, and the East Sea
from January 2005 to December 2009. Since the cloud contamination in ocean color observations are always
programmatic, analyzing physical and biological interactions have been limited. In order to examine whether we can use
NGSST for Chla using a linear regression, we investigated their relations to obtain cloud free Chla. The results show
that the ES and the SS have relatively small root mean error (RMSE) than that in the YS. In addition to time series of
two different observations, we applied empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) to extract different spatial features from
both Chla and SST imagery. We selected off the west coast of the ES for a jet like feature on August 13, 2007. The
Chla meandering features were different from previously reported upwelling features in the area. The features seem like
to be modulated by waves, which were appeared in SST decomposition modes, i.e., Intrinsic Mode Decomposition
Although the methods were applied to MODIS observations, which are coarser spatial and temporal resolutions than
those of GOCI, these methods will provide better results with GOCI observations because of better resolutions.
Previous studies of the Mediterranean outflow and meddies (O&M) were limited by poor spatial and temporal resolution of the conventional observations. Little is known about meddies formation and transport, and the spatial and temporal variation of its trajectories. Generally speaking, most of the satellite observations are confined to the ocean's surface or its surface layer, while meddies were located, on an average, at a depth of 1000m. We developed a new remote sensing method to observe and study the O&M through unique approaches in satellite multi-sensor data integration analyses. Satellite altimeter, scatterometer, SST and XBT data were used to detect and calculate the trajectories and the relative transport of the O&M. We found that more northwestward meddies occurred in the spring and more southward meddies occurred in the fall than previously thought. Since the O&M play a significant role in carrying salty water from the Mediterranean into the Atlantic and contribute to the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation, such new knowledge about their trajectories, transport and life histories is important to understand their mixing and interaction with the North Atlantic water, adn hence, to lead to a better understanding of the global ocean circulation and the global change.
Alternating dark-bright patterns along the coast on Landsat MSS and the ERS-1 SAR images were recognized to be the image of a coastal lee wave. Such waves are called coastal lee waves because they occur along the lee side of the coast. The first case was noted in the offshore area of the Delaware Bay in the middle Atlantic Bight shown as a wave- like cloud pattern on MSS images taken in December 14, 1975. The second case was detected by the ERS-1 SAR shown on the image of the Taiwan Strait taken on December 8, 1994. The average wavelength is 2 km, ranging from 0.3 km to 4.2 km. The crest lines with length from 20 km to more than 100 km are generally parallel to the coastline. The horizontal distribution range is a band 20 km wide, 20-100 km offshore. The vertical extent of the disturbance reaches from the ocean surface to the top of cumulus. The waves manifest solitary characteristics. The seasonal land-breeze circulation is being proposed as a major generation mechanism for the observed lee waves.