A Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensor that combines the conventional complementary coding with the pulse prepump technique for high-accuracy and long-range distributed sensing is implemented and analyzed. The employment of the complementary coding provides an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the sensing system and an extended sensing distance, and the measurement time is also reduced compared with a BOTDA sensor using linear coding. The combination of pulse prepump technique enables the establishment of a preactivated acoustic field in each pump pulse of the complementary codeword, which ensures measurements of high spatial resolution and high frequency accuracy. The feasibility of the prepumped complementary coding is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The experiments are carried out beyond 50-km single-mode fiber, and experimental results show the capabilities of the proposed scheme to achieve 1-m spatial resolution with temperature and strain resolutions equal to ∼1.6°C and ∼32 μϵ, and 2-m spatial resolution with temperature and strain resolutions equal to ∼0.3°C and ∼6 μϵ, respectively. A longer sensing distance with the same spatial resolution and measurement accuracy can be achieved through increasing the code length of the prepumped complementary code.
In most distributed Brillouin sensing systems, it is crucial to keep the long-term stability of the electro-optic modulator (EOM) operating point. The dither-tone based bias control methods are widely adopted in this kind of systems for its robustness and reliability, but the low frequency dither tone (a few kilohertz) added into the dc bias port of the EOM may have a detrimental impact on the sensing performance of the Brillouin sensing system. Experimental results show that the dither frequency should not be set around quarter of the pulse repetition rate or its multiples, and the employed dither amplitude should be in the range of 0.003<i>V<sub>π</sub></i> to 0.015<i>V<sub>π</sub></i> (<i>V<sub>π</sub></i> is the RF half-wave voltage of the EOM), in order to overcome the limitation of dither tone based bias control techniques in BOTDA systems. These results will provide guidelines to improve the performance of the Brillouin sensing systems using dither-based EOM bias control method.
An improved optical pulse heterodyne demodulation scheme for fiber-optic interferometric sensors is demonstrated. This scheme uses two series-connected Acoustic-optic modulators (AOMs) as intensity modulator and frequency shifter respectively. Compared to the traditional optical heterodyne demodulation structure, this scheme eliminates the polarization-induced signal fading and the noise floor is lowered for using the Michelson-configuration delay structure and Faraday rotation mirrors (FRMs) in the optic architecture of system. At the same time, the architecture of this scheme is not complicated and can be used to complex a large sensor array. Experimental results show that the phase noise floor of this demodulation scheme is flat and reaches -99dB/sqrt(Hz) at frequencies above 300 Hz.