In this paper, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been proposed as a pedagogical way in optical education. Meanwhile, FDTD solutions, a simulation software based on the FDTD algorithm, has been presented as a new tool which helps abecedarians to build optical models and to analyze optical problems. The core of FDTD algorithm is that the time-dependent Maxwell’s equations are discretized to the space and time partial derivatives, and then, to simulate the response of the interaction between the electronic pulse and the ideal conductor or semiconductor. Because the solving of electromagnetic field is in time domain, the memory usage is reduced and the simulation consequence on broadband can be obtained easily. Thus, promoting FDTD algorithm in optical education is available and efficient. FDTD enables us to design, analyze and test modern passive and nonlinear photonic components (such as bio-particles, nanoparticle and so on) for wave propagation, scattering, reflection, diffraction, polarization and nonlinear phenomena. The different FDTD models can help teachers and students solve almost all of the optical problems in optical education. Additionally, the GUI of FDTD solutions is so friendly to abecedarians that learners can master it quickly.
In this study, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm has been used to work out the cell light scattering problem. Before beginning to do the simulation contrast, finding out the changes or the differences between normal cells and abnormal cells which may be cancerous or maldevelopment is necessary. The preparation of simulation are building up the simple cell model of cell which consists of organelles, nucleus and cytoplasm and setting up the suitable precision of mesh. Meanwhile, setting up the total field scattering field source as the excitation source and far field projection analysis group is also important. Every step need to be explained by the principles of mathematic such as the numerical dispersion, perfect matched layer boundary condition and near-far field extrapolation. The consequences of simulation indicated that the position of nucleus changed will increase the back scattering intensity and the significant difference on the peak value of scattering intensity may result from the changes of the size of cytoplasm. The study may help us find out the regulations based on the simulation consequences and the regulations can be meaningful for early diagnosis of cancers.
Optical diagnostic technique, due to its rapid and non-invasive for the diagnosis diseases at the cellular level, can be performed in vivo and allow for real-time diagnosis. While light scattering method is capable of characterizing the structural properties of tissue at the cellular and subcellular scale. In this paper, the spherical models of cells light scattering were established based on Mie, and the distribution curves of scattering intensity in the range of 0~180 degrees were got to explore change rule of cells light scattering information at the molecular level. Also, a platform for experiments used to measure the light scattering information of cells was built to get the change rule of cells light scattering information in wide angular range. And the particle size distribution (PSD) of cells was got by the inversion algorithm. A comparative analysis between numerical simulation and goniometric measurements revealed that the forward-scattering and side-scattering were influenced by the particle size of cells and relative index of refraction between cells and surrounding media. It could also be concluded that it was necessary to get and analyze the light scattering information of larger scattering angle range, which may be related to the intracellular organelles and nucleus.
The interaction between drugs and serum albumin is the theoretical basis of pharmacology research. Kangai injection with invigorating Qi, enhancing the immune function, is widely used for a variety of malignant tumor treatment. Fluorescence spectroscopy was adopted due to its high sensitivity and other advantages. The interaction between kangai injection and human serum albumin (HSA) in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The results of fluorescence spectrum at three temperature (296K, 303K and 310K) showed the degree of binding at 310K is the highest. Also, the maximum emission peak has a slight blue shift, which indicates that the interaction between kangai injection and HSA has an effect on the conformation of HSA. That is, the microenvironment of tryptophan increase hydrophobic due to the increase of the concentration of kangai injection. Results obtained from analysis of fluorescence spectrum and fluorescence intensity indicated that kangai injection has a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA. And according to the Stern-Volume equation, the quenching mechanism is static quenching, which is further proved by the UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy.
As with the number of cancer increases year by year, so it is important to be found and treated earlier. With biological cells and tissues are sensitive to infrared and visible light, cell morphology and physical structure of the optical properties can easily obtain, we can provide theoretical basis for the early diagnosis of cancer by observing the difference of optical properties between normal and cancerous cells. Compared with Mie scattering theory, finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm can analyze any complex structure model. In this paper we use mathematical modeling method to establish the single cell mathematical model and with finite difference time domain algorithm to simulate the propagation and scattering of light in the biological cells, you can calculate the scattering of electromagnetic field distribution at anytime and anywhere. With radar cross section (RCS) to measure the results of the scattering characteristics. Due to the difference between normal cells and cancerous cells are embodied in cell shape, size and the refractive index, through the simulation we can get different cell parameters of light scattering information, Find out the cell parameters change the changing rule of the influence on the scattering characteristics and find out change regularity of scattering characteristics. These data can judge very accurate of the cells is normal or cancerous cells.
In the research and development of multi-parameter precision detecting system, various parameters need to be measured (such as length, diameter, surface roughness and so on). We not only measure some parameters statically but also measure others dynamically and calculate others (such as volume, density) using some detected parameters. At the same time, this system need higher precision and higher measuring speed. We propose a new detecting idea for this system--detecting devices in dynamic, module and time-sharing. And we design and optimize multi-parameter high precision measurement system employing the method. This idea includes three parts: the first part is dynamical part. We can make system more stability and more continuity in high detecting speed. The second part is module part. We can settle on a solution to measure similar parameters and make system structure more reasonable and reduce error factors. The third is time-sharing part. We solve the problem how to allot time to every parameter and make every measurement part and its software tie in. The detecting idea has been employed to design and optimize several multi-parameter precision detecting systems. Now these systems are running successfully in workshop.