Cancer cells display high rates of glycolysis even under normoxia and mostly under hypoxia. Warburg proposed this
effect of altered metabolism in cells more than 80 years ago. It is considered as a hallmark of cancer. Optical
spectroscopy can be used to explore this effect.
Pathophysiological studies indicate that mitochondria of cancer cells are enlarged and increased in number. Warburg
observed that cancer cells tend to convert most glucose to lactate regardless of the presence of oxygen. Previous
observations show increased lactate in breast cancer lines.
The focus of this study is to investigate the relative content changes of lactate and mitochondria in human cancerous and
normal breast tissue samples using optical spectroscopic techniques. The optical spectra were obtained from 30
cancerous and 25 normal breast tissue samples and five model components (Tryptophan, fat, collagen, lactate and
mitochondrion) using fluorescence, Stokes shift and Raman spectroscopy. The basic biochemical component analysis
model (BBCA) and a set of algorithm were used to analyze the spectra.
Our analyses of fluorescence spectra showed a 14 percent increase in lactate content and 2.5 times increase in
mitochondria number in cancerous breast tissue as compared with normal tissue. Our findings indicate that optical
spectroscopic techniques may be used to understand Warburg effect. Lactate and mitochondrion content changes in
tumors examined using optical spectroscopy may be used as a prognostic molecular marker in clinic applications.
The microinjection of organelles, plants, particles or chemical solutions into Amoeba proteus coupled with spectroscopic
analysis and observed for a period of time provides a unique new model for cancer treatment and studies. The amoeba is
a eukaryote having many similar features of mammalian cells. The amoeba biochemical functions monitored
spectroscopically can provide time sequence in vivo information about many metabolic transitions and metabolic
exchanges between cellar organelles and substances microinjected into the amoeba. It is possible to microinject algae,
plant mitochondria, drugs or carcinogenic solutions followed by recording the native fluorescence spectra of these
composites. This model can be used to spectroscopically monitor the pre-metabolic transitions in developing diseased
cells such as a cancer. Knowing specific metabolic transitions could offer solutions to inhibit cancer or reverse it as well
as many other diseases.
In the present study a simple experiment was designed to test the feasibility of this unique new model by injecting algae
and chloroplasts into amoeba. The nonradiative dynamics found from these composites are evidence in terms of the
emission ratios between the intensities at 337nm and 419nm; and 684nm bands. There were reductions in the metabolic
and photosynthetic processes in amoebae that were microinjected with chloroplasts and zoochlorellae as well of those
amoebae that ingested the algae and chloroplasts. The changes in the intensity of the emissions of the peaks indicate that
the zoochlorellae lived in the amoebae for ten days. Spectral changes in intensity under the UV and 633nm wavelength
excitation are from the energy transfer of DNA and RNA, protein-bound chromophores and chlorophylls present in
zoochlorellae undergoing photosynthesis. The fluorescence spectroscopic probes established the biochemical interplay
between the cell organelles and the algae present in the cell cytoplasm. This hybrid state is indicative that a symbiotic
system is in place and the results definitely support the potential use of this unique new model. This model many help in
plant / animal and cancer processes.
The backscattering of circularly polarized (CP) light has been investigated using experiments and an analytical cumulant
solution of the vector radiative transfer equation. The expression of the exact spatial cumulants of light distribution
function has been derived. Both experimental and theoretical studies show that the helicity of the incident circular
polarization is maintained in the light backscattered from large particle suspensions. Reflection from an embedded target
inside the turbid medium reverses the helicity of the incident circular polarization. Polarization memory imaging makes
use of this difference in helicity between light reflected from the target and that from the scattering medium and
significantly enhances the image contrast by selecting out the circularly cross-polarized light. We experimentally
demonstrate the superior image quality for target inside large polystyrene particle suspensions in water.