A PANDA polarization-maintaining few-mode ring-core fiber (PM-FM-RCF) structure with two air holes around the ring core is proposed. The relative mode multiplicity factor (RMMF) is defined to evaluate the spatial efficiency of the designed PM-FM-RCF. The performance analysis and comparison of the proposed PANDA PM-FM-RCFs considering three different types of step-index profiles are detailed. Through modal characteristic analysis and numerical simulation, the PM-FM-RCF with a lower refractive index difference (Δnoi=1.5%) between the ring core and the inner central circle can support up to 16 polarization modes with large RMMF at C-band, which shows the optimum modal properties compared with the PM-FM-RCF with higher Δnoi. All the supported polarization modes are effectively separated from their adjacent polarization modes with effective refractive index differences (Δneff) larger than 10−4, which also show relatively small chromatic dispersion (−20 to 25 ps/nm/km), low attenuation (<1.4 dB/km), and small bending radius (∼8 mm) over the C-band. The designed PM-FM-RCF can be compatible with standard single-mode fibers and applied in multiple-input multiple-output-free spatial division multiplexing optical networks for short-reach optical interconnection.
In recent years, the integrated space-ground network communication system plays an increasingly important role in earth observation and space information confrontation for the civilian and military service. Their characteristic on wide coverage, which may be the only way to provide Internet access and communication services in many areas, has extensively promoted its significance. This paper discusses the architecture of integrated space-ground communication networks, and introduces a novel routing algorithm named Improved Store-and-forward Routing Mechanism (ISRM) to shorten the transmission delay in such a network. The proposed ISRM algorithm is based on store and forward mechanism, while it trying to find several alternative delay-constraint paths by building the route-related nodes encounter-probability information table and communication timing diagram. Simulation is conducted at the end, and comparisons between ISRM and baseline algorithm are given. The results show that ISRM can achieve relatively good performance in terms of transmission latency in integrated space-ground networks.