Proc. SPIE. 5033, Medical Imaging 2003: PACS and Integrated Medical Information Systems: Design and Evaluation
KEYWORDS: Image compression, Image restoration, Distortion, Digital watermarking, Medical imaging, Digital imaging, Image enhancement, Computed tomography, Computer security, Picture Archiving and Communication System
We propose a lossless watermarking scheme, in a sense that the original image can be exactly recovered from the watermarked one, with the purpose of verifying the integrity and authenticity of medical images in PACS. Our embedding method includes imposing invertible modulations that induce low distortion level, as well as losslessly compressing the status of the original image and carrying such information in the watermarked image. Digital signature of the whole image is embedded for verifying the integrity of the image. An identifier also presented in electronic patient record (EPR) is embedded for verifying the authenticity by simultaneously processing of the watermarked image and the EPR. Combining with fingerprint system, patient’s fingerprint information is further embedded into several image slices and then extracted for verifying the authenticity. No visual quality degradation is detected in the watermarked image.