Optical poling and frequency doubling effect is one of the effective manners to induce second order nonlinearity and realize frequency doubling in glass materials. The classical model believes that an internal electric field is built in glass when it’s exposed by fundamental and frequency-doubled light at the same time, and second order nonlinearity appears as a result of the electric field and the orientation of poles. The process of frequency doubling in glass is quasi phase matched. In this letter, the physical process of poling and doubling process in optical poling and frequency doubling effect is deeply discussed in detail. The magnitude and direction of internal electric field, second order nonlinear coefficient and its components, strength and direction of frequency doubled output signal, quasi phase matched coupled wave equations are given in analytic expression. Model of optical poling and frequency doubling effect which can be quantitatively analyzed are constructed in theory, which set a foundation for intensive study of optical poling and frequency doubling effect.
We presented a novel scheme to improve the stability of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes transmission by adding a dip at the edge of the annular high-index region of the air-core fiber. The simulation indicated a larger effective index difference of the vector modes that composed OAM modes in the same order, promising a stable transmission of the OAM modes. The intensity of the modes was concentrated better in this scheme decreasing the crosstalk between adjacent fibers. The propagation properties of the OAM modes in bent fiber were investigated.