IGMP is a host-router signaling protocol, and it is used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups for IPv4.
IGMPv3 adds "source filtering" function required to support SSM. Firstly, this paper analyses the improvements and implementation
of IGMPv3. Secondly, it points out the problems when applying IGMPv3 to IPTV carrying network. Then it presents the solutions by
improving IGMPv3 protocol to reduce channel zapping time which is one of the important metrics affecting the QoE in IPTV service.
Method to realize the end user authentication, authorization and accounting in the IP multicast security and authentication area by
extending the IGMPv3 protocol is described at last.
VPLS is the key technology implemented to provide Layer 2 bridge-like services, connecting dispersed locations to work in a switched LAN over an MPLS backbone. However, implementing VPLS requires creating a complex matrix of services and locations that quickly becomes difficult to configure and maintain. To address this complexity, this paper proposes a new approach to automate the configuration and maintenance of VPLS networks, a node-discovery process in which each router advertises its VPLS-enabled status and capabilities to all other routers. Our approach can be summarized into four steps. (1) Discover other VPLS PE nodes with VPLS capabilities and create the VPLS capable PE routers list. We introduce a finite state machine which includes four states to illustrate the process how a VPLS peer can be discovered and the peer relations be kept alive. (2) Build MPLS LSP tunnels to all the PE routers in the list, according to the advertised VPLS protocol capabilities. (3) Use the lists to create targeted-LDP sessions for VPLS services discovery. (4) VC label assignment. The PE edge routers exchanges messages to define VC labels and bind them with each built PWE. The suggested auto-discovery mechanism is sensitive to any service provider's topology change and customer's service modification. The dynamic process for the FIB building, MAC address learning and withdrawal, is also covered as the result of VPLS auto-discovery. The suggested mechanism can be implemented as a software module and could be seamlessly integrated with currently deployed Metro Ethernet routing and switching platform.
Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) is generating considerable interest with enterprises and service providers as it offers multipoint transparent LAN service (TLS) over MPLS networks. This paper describes an effective technology - VPLS, which links virtual switch instances (VSIs) through MPLS to form an emulated Ethernet switch and build Scalable Transparent Lan Services. It first focuses on the architecture of VPLS with Ethernet bridging technique at the edge and MPLS at the core, then it tries to elucidate the data forwarding mechanism within VPLS domain, including learning and aging MAC addresses on a per LSP basis, flooding of unknown frames and replication for unknown, multicast, and broadcast frames. The loop-avoidance mechanism, known as split horizon forwarding, is also analyzed. Another important aspect of VPLS service is its basic operation, including autodiscovery and signaling, is discussed. From the perspective of efficiency and scalability the paper compares two important signaling mechanism, BGP and LDP, which are used to set up a PW between the PEs and bind the PWs to a particular VSI. With the extension of VPLS and the increase of full mesh of PWs between PE devices (n*(n-1)/2 PWs in all, a n<sup>2</sup> complete problem), VPLS instance could have a large number of remote PE associations, resulting in an inefficient use of network bandwidth and system resources as the ingress PE has to replicate each frame and append MPLS labels for remote PE. So the latter part of this paper focuses on the scalability issue: the Hierarchical VPLS. Within the architecture of HVPLS, this paper addresses two ways to cope with a possibly large number of MAC addresses, which make VPLS operate more efficiently.