In this paper, a new focusing method adopting an axicon for the demand of the plasma measurements in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers is presented. In order to improve the performance of this element, annular-aperture and Super-Guassian apodization are introduced to remove the on-axis oscillations. Meanwhile, the lateral width is optimized through choosing appropriate radius ratio of the inner ring to outer ring of the element. Furthermore, the feasibility is conformed by numerical evaluation of Fresnel diffraction integral .The results obtained are accordant with our designed intention. At last, as an example and for specific application, we designed an axicon, which has almost unchanged axial intensity, a focal depth more than 3mm, beam size smaller than 100μm and the maximal relative intensity of side lobe less than 2%. The performance of this element satisfies the requirements of plasma measurements in ICF drivers.
In the final optics assembly of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) driver, Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) are applied to achieve some important functions, such as harmonic wave separation, beam sampling, beam smoothing and pulse compression etc. However, in order to optimize the system structure, decrease the energy loss and avoid the damage of laser induction or self-focusing effect, the number of elements used in the ICF system, especially in the final optics assembly, should be minimized. The multiple exposure method has been proposed, for this purpose, to fabricate BSG and CSG on one surface of a silica plate. But the multiple etch processes utilized in this method is complex and will introduce large alignment error. Error diffusion method that based on pulse-density modulation has been widely used in signal processing and computer generated hologram (CGH). In this paper, according to error diffusion method in CGH and partial coherent imaging theory, we present a new method to design coding mask of combine CSG-BSG element with error diffusion method. With the designed mask, only one exposure process is needed in fabricating combined element, which will greatly reduce the fabrication difficulty and avoid the alignment error introduced by multiple etch processes. We illustrate the designed coding mask for CSG-BSG element with this method and compare the intensity distribution of the spatial image in partial coherent imaging system with desired relief.
In high power laser system, it is of great interest to combine two or more diffractive structures, in particular, the beam-sampling gratings (BSG) and the color separation gratings (CSG), onto one element. However, the combined element with diffractive structure on both surfaces, may cause serious laser induced damage to the element itself. So, this paper use Fourier modal method to analyze the near field characteristic of CSG and BSG combined element. Through theoretically analysis and numerical calculation, amplitude and phase distribution of electric field are present both inside and outside the diffractive structural region, and the maximum peak-to-average modulation in near field is also given. Based on this study, the most possibility of optical damage induced by beam modulation of CSG and BSG combined element appears in the neighborhood of the interface.
Based on the focus principle of the zone plate and the encoding method of the computer-generated hologram, a zone plate applied in OCT to increase the focal depth is proposed. The phase distribution of this kind of zone plate is constructed by superimposing a shifted elliptical phase to the phase function of a common sine zone plate, which will confine the spot size of the focused beam within a particular range along axis and thus extend the focal depth. The numerical simulation shows that the focal segment of the zone plate meet the requirement of the commonly used OCT imaging system in the two aspects of focal depth and transverse resolution. Because the zone plate has many advantages such as flexible focal length and depth design, simple structure for fabrication, low cost and convenient micromation and integration, it is a potential long focal depth component for optical coherence tomography.