Analytical formula for the average intensity of cylindrical vector vortex beams propagation in a non-Kolmogorov turbulent atmosphere is derived based on extended Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral and be used to explore the evolution of the turbulence-induced spreading. For comparison, the corresponding results of the scalar vortex beams are compiled together. Scalar vortex beam can keep its original intensity pattern in the short propagation distance and evolve into the Gaussian-like beam with the increase of the propagation distance and turbulence structure parameter, and the decrease of power spectrum index, under the influence of atmospheric turbulence. An example illustrates the fact that, radially polarized vortex beams are more resistant to atmospheric turbulence than scalar vortex beams based on the view of disappearing characteristic of hollow structure. A radially polarized vortex beam has a better performance on the reduction of turbulence-induced beam spreading effects than its scalar counterpart. This indicates the potential advantages of using vector vortex to mitigate atmospheric effects and enable a more robust free space communication channel with longer link distance.
Superposition theory of the spiral harmonics is employed to numerical study the transmission property of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode of Gaussian beam induced by atmospheric turbulence. Results show that Gauss beam does not carry OAM at the source, but various OAM modes appear after affected by atmospheric turbulence. With the increase of atmospheric turbulence strength, the smaller order OAM modes appear firstly, followed by larger order OAM modes. The beam spreading of Gauss beams in the atmosphere enhance with the increasing topological charge of the OAM modes caused by atmospheric turbulence. The mode probability density of the OAM generated by atmospheric turbulence decreases, and peak position gradually deviate from the Gauss beam spot center with the increase of the topological charge. Our results may be useful for improving the performance of long distance laser digital spiral imaging system.
Based on the scattering effect of optical vortex, the remote sensing for aerosol particles in marine atmosphere is investigated. The influences of orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode and beam width of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam on the performance on the remote sensing for aerosol particles in marine atmosphere are analyzed numerically. The scattering properties of aerosol particles by LG beam are more sensitive to the change of relative humidity, compared to that of plane wave and Gaussian beam (GB). Remote sensing systems based on LG beam with OAM modes show superiority over traditional plane wave and Gaussian beam cases in detecting the changes in relative humidity of marine atmosphere aerosol. Results also indicate that, when the number of OAM modes p (l) increase, the Radar CrossSection (RCS) of aerosol particles alternating appear extreme values in the forward and backward scattering, because of the special ring-shaped distribution of LG beam. The forward and backward scattering of aerosol particles decrease with the increase in beam waist. As beam waist is less than the radius of aerosol particle, there exists a minimum value in the forward direction.