Experiments of flame propagation in a small, closed rectangular duct with a 90° bend were performed for a propane-air
mixture. The high speed camera and Schlieren techniques were used to record images of flame propagation process in
the combustion pipe. Meanwhile, the fine thermocouples and ion current probes were applied to measure the temperature
distribution and reaction intensity of combustion. The characteristics of propane-air flame and its microstructure were
analyzed in detail by the experimental results. In the test, the special tulip flame formation was observed. Around the
bend, the flame tip proceeded more quickly at the lower side with the flame front elongated toward the axial direction.
And transition to turbulent flame occurred. It was suggested that fluctuations of velocity, ion current and temperature
were mainly due to the comprehensive effects of multi-wave and the intense of turbulent combustion.
In the study of boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), the critical point to interpret the mechanism of the
disaster is to analyze the phase transition of the superheated liquid in the container and the motions of the medium during
the first several or several tens of milliseconds after the explosion from the microscopic angle of view. In the study
recorded in this paper, a BLEVE simulative device was made. Using high-speed camera, the instant explosive boiling in
the liquor phase space and the formation and development of the high speed two-phase flow were observed at the
moment of the container broken in explosion, the growing and moving speed of the bubble in the liquor phase space
were measured, and the influence of the energy released by blasted bubble nucleate in the early stages on the boiling
characteristics of the superheated liquid and the overpressure disciplines in the container were analyzed. The study shows
that in a BLEVE process, the boiling of superheated liquid does not present in the form of volume boiling, but presents
as a progressive process with several steps that starts from the surface and develops over time.
Recent investigation on multilayer films with a local layer-thickness deviation has been performed. This kind of deviation may occur at any position in the multilayer. Simulated example of W/C, W/Si, and Pd/Si multilayers for CuK<sub>(alpha)</sub> and CuL<sub>(alpha)</sub> diffractions with different layer parameters as well as various amounts of the local deviations show quite different behaviors. The results show that the diffraction profile for a local deviation A' equals A+ (Delta) d or B' equals B+ (Delta) d is nearly antisymmetric to that for A' equals A- (Delta) d or B' equals B- (Delta) d and the appearance of double peaks is affected by both of the position and amount of the local deviation. Explanation has been carried out by the amplitude-phase diagrams.