Silicon photonics promises scalable manufacturing of integrated photonic devices through utilization of established CMOS processing techniques and facilities. Unfortunately, the silicon photonics platform lacks a viable light source, which has historically been overcome through heterogeneous integration techniques. To further improve economic viability, the platform must transition to direct epitaxy on Si to bypass the scaling limits imposed by the small sizes and high cost of III-V substrates in heterogeneous integration. InAs quantum dots have demonstrated themselves as the most promising candidate for achieving high performance light emitters epitaxially grown on Si. Using molecular beam epitaxy, we have grown quantum dot lasers composed of InAs dot-in-a-well active layers on industry-standard, on-axis (001) Si substrates. In this report, we utilized p-doping of the quantum dot active region to increase gain for improved dynamic performance and reliability. These devices have been subjected to accelerated aging conditions at 60°C and a bias multiple of twice threshold current density. After 2,750 hours of continuous aging, an extrapolated lifetime of more than 100,000 hours has been calculated.
Continuous-wave optically-pumped micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on silicon with single mode lasing at communication wavelengths from liquid helium to room temperature is reported. Growth of the InAs quantum dots (QDs) gain medium was carried out on high crystalline quality GaAs/InP-on-silicon templates. Special defect filtering techniques have been employed to minimize the impact of the highly lattice-mismatched heteroepitaxial growth on (001) silicon substrates. Compared with quantum wells, the multi-stack InAs QDs are less sensitive to residual defects originated from the hetero-interfaces. Using QDs in a micro-disk resonant cavity with minimized non-radiative surface recombination leads to low-threshold lasing in the micro-disks with a few microns in diameter.