Facial surface electromyography (sEMG) is a powerful tool for objective evaluation of human facial expressions and was accordingly suggested in recent years for a wide range of psychological and neurological assessment applications. Owing to technical challenges, in particular the cumbersome gelled electrodes, the use of facial sEMG was so far limited. Using innovative facial temporary tattoos optimized specifically for facial applications, we demonstrate the use of sEMG as a platform for robust identification of facial muscle activation. In particular, differentiation between diverse facial muscles is demonstrated. We also demonstrate a wireless version of the system. The potential use of the presented technology for user-experience monitoring and objective psychological and neurological evaluations is discussed.
We develop a new approach for obtaining wide-angle, broadband and efficient reflection holography by utilizing coupled dipole-patch nano-antenna cells to impose an arbitrary phase profile on of the reflected light. The holograms were projected at angles of 45° and 20° with respect to the impinging light with efficiencies ranging between 40%-50% over an optical bandwidth exceeding 180nm. Excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions was found at a wide spectral range. The demonstration of such reflectarrays opens new avenues towards expanding the limits of large angle holography.
We demonstrate a refractive index (RI) detection technique based on an array of nanometer scale slot-antennas milled in a thin gold layer using a single lithographic step. Our experimental Figures of merit (FOMs) of 140-210 in the telecom wavelength range approach the fundamental limit for standard propagating SPR sensors (~250). The underlying mechanism enabling such high FOMs is the combination of a narrowband resonance of the slot-antennas with degeneracy breaking of Wood’s anomaly under slightly non-perpendicular illumination. In addition, we study the sensitivity of the thickness of the analyte layer. This concept can be easily tuned to any desired wavelength and RI range by modifying the slot dimensions and the array spacing, thus rendering it highly attractive for numerous sensing applications.
We demonstrate the use of nano-antenna unit cells composed of coupled dipole and patch elements over a reflective back plane, which are designed to control the phase of a reflected optical beam. The antennas were studied both numerically and experimentally and allow exact control over the output phase in the range of 00-3600. Several diffractive optical applications are shown numerically and experimentally: Blazed gratings which allow deflection of the output beam to high reflection angles show very high diffraction efficiency, and arbitrary wave shapes such as computer generated holograms can be formed with very high efficiency and large angles relative to the incident beam. The optical conversion efficiency was measured to be above 40% for all applications.
We study theoretically and experimentally the IR emission properties from gold nano-antenna arrays. A new
characterization method based on far field measurements only is developed and presented. Excellent agreement in terms
of resonance frequencies, optical bandwidth, and emission efficiency is found between the experimental results and a
theoretical analysis based on finite element modeling of the arrays. Extremely high overall emission efficiencies,
exceeding 95%, are obtained experimentally. The high efficiency and the simple far-field characterization scheme
presented here can facilitate the employment of such nano-antennas for numerous applications in imaging, spectroscopy,
and solar energy harvesting.