Bolt loosening, as one of hidden faults, affects the running quality of trains and even causes serious safety accidents. However, the developed fault detection approaches based on two-dimensional images cannot detect bolt-loosening due to lack of depth information. Therefore, we propose a novel online bolt-loosening detection method using binocular vision. Firstly, the target detection model based on convolutional neural network (CNN) is used to locate the target regions. And then, stereo matching and three-dimensional reconstruction are performed to detect bolt-loosening faults. The experimental results show that the looseness of multiple bolts can be characterized by the method simultaneously. The measurement repeatability and precision are less than 0.03mm, 0.09mm respectively, and its relative error is controlled within 1.09%.