Streak Cameras are an essential diagnostic tool used in shock physics and high energy density physics experiments. Such experiments require well calibrated temporally resolved diagnostics for studying events that occur in the nanosecond to microsecond time scales. Although streak cameras are among the most common detectors used within the high energy density physics community, they require frequent calibration and typically lack reproducibility in the fine detail. A solid state device with similar temporal performance characteristics could provide several advantages to current streak camera systems by utilizing discrete spatial resolution set by the sensor diodes. National Security Technologies (NSTec) has built a multi-channel solid state streak camera (SSSC) prototype, in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, as part of an ongoing project to develop the technology to a level competitive with analog streak cameras. The device concept and results from electronic testing of our first prototypes will be discussed in this manuscript. These measurements will be used as a base for future SSSC development projects.
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Opacity Spectrometer (OpSpec) is a modular spectrometer designed initially for opacity experiments on NIF. The design of the OpSpec is presented in light of the requirements and constraints. Potential dispersing elements and detector configurations are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are discussed. The full OpSpec design covers the energy range from approximately 550 eV to 2 keV. The energy resolution of the OpSpec is E/ΔE > 500. Applications of the OpSpec are discussed, including relevant astrophysical applications for NIF experiments, and will compliment recently published work on the Z machine. (Bailey, et al., Nature 517, 56-59 (2015).) This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
Geometrically enhanced photocathodes are currently being developed for use in applications that seek to improve detector efficiency in the visible to X-ray ranges. Various photocathode surface geometries are typically chosen based on the detector operational wavelength region, along with requirements such as spatial resolution, temporal resolution and dynamic range. Recently, a structure has been identified for possible use in the X-ray region. This anisotropic high aspect ratio structure has been produced in silicon using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology. The process is specifically developed with respect to the pattern density and geometry of the photocathode chip to achieve the desired sidewall profile angle. The tapered sidewall profile angle precision has been demonstrated to be within ± 2.5° for a ~ 12° wall angle, with feature sizes that range between 4-9 μm in diameter and 10-25 μm depth. Here we discuss the device applications, design and present the method used to produce a set of geometrically enhanced high yield X-ray photocathodes in silicon.