In this paper, we propose several entanglement assisted QKD protocols based on time-energy encoding with the number of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) larger than two. We describe how to implement these protocols based on: (i) optical FFT device implemented in integrated optics with the help of Franson interferometers and (ii) Weyl gate. We also describe the corresponding weak-coherent state-based protocol. By employing the <i>N</i>-dimensional pulse position modulation (ND-PPM) approach, the secret key rate of single photon pulse per signaling interval protocols can be improved by <i>N/log<sub>2</sub>N</i> times. However, the corresponding entanglement assisted protocols require the use of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) principles to further entangle single photon pulse per frame state. We then analyze the security of the proposed protocols and provide the finite secret key rates in the presence of various imperfections including background errors and timing jitter, for which we propose the <i>K</i>-neighbor model. Finally, we provide the improvements in secret key rates of proposed protocol over conventional two-base time-energy QKD protocol.
The joint optimization of coding and modulation formats would provide significant receiver sensitivity improvement due to the increased Hamming distance of codes. By applying Arimoto-Blahut algorithm to maximize mutual information, optimized coded-modulation has been found out together with optimized bit-mapping rule. Simulated channel capacity shows that optimized coded modulation could outperform its counterparts, such as regular qaudrature-amplitude modulation, by around 0.3dB up to about 0.9 coding rate. The improvement is found to be larger in higher modulation formats. Optimal coded-8QAM modulation has been further verified in experiment, where 40Tb/s over 6787km is demonstrated by transmitting 200G per wavelength thanks to the better receiver sensitivity of optimal coded modulation.
Pulse-position modulation (PPM) is a promising technique that can be used to improve the efficiency of quantum key
distribution (QKD) based on a Poisson photon source. In this paper, we first investigate a simple entanglement-and-
PPM-based QKD protocol and demonstrate the improvement in secret key rate. However, such a PPM-based QKD
protocol that utilizes only frames with a single click is still inefficient because it ignores frames with two and more
clicks. For this reason we propose to use such multi-click frames to further improve the efficiency of PPM-based QKD
by employing a better sifting strategy. Specifically, we focus on using the frames with two clicks in addition to those
with a single click. Finally, we analyze the secret key rate under various noise levels in the scenario of high channel loss,
which has been faced by most QKD applications. With the analytical results, we show the advantage of the proposed
In optically-routed networks, different wavelength channels carrying the traffic to different destinations can have quite different optical signal-to-noise ratios (OSNRs) and signal is differently impacted by various channel impairments. Regardless of the data destination, an optical transport system (OTS) must provide the target bit-error rate (BER) performance. To provide target BER regardless of the data destination we adjust the forward error correction (FEC) strength. Depending on the information obtained from the monitoring channels, we select the appropriate code rate matching to the OSNR range that current channel OSNR falls into. To avoid frame synchronization issues, we keep the codeword length fixed independent of the FEC code being employed. The common denominator is the employment of quasi-cyclic (QC-) LDPC codes in FEC. For high-speed implementation, low-complexity LDPC decoding algorithms are needed, and some of them will be described in this invited paper. Instead of conventional QAM based modulation schemes, we employ the signal constellations obtained by optimum signal constellation design (OSCD) algorithm. To improve the spectral efficiency, we perform the simultaneous rate adaptation and signal constellation size selection so that the product of number of bits per symbol × code rate is closest to the channel capacity. Further, we describe the advantages of using 4D signaling instead of polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) QAM, by using the 4D MAP detection, combined with LDPC coding, in a turbo equalization fashion. Finally, to solve the problems related to the limited bandwidth of information infrastructure, high energy consumption, and heterogeneity of optical networks, we describe an adaptive energy-efficient hybrid coded-modulation scheme, which in addition to amplitude, phase, and polarization state employs the spatial modes as additional basis functions for multidimensional coded-modulation.
We study the channel capacity for orbital angular momentum (OAM) based quantum free-space optical communications. Inspired by recent demonstrations for OAM-based single-photon communication, we construct the quantum density operator in matrix form, based on OAM eigenkets, and determine the quantum channel model suitable for study of the quantum communication over atmospheric turbulence channels. The quantum channel model is derived from OAM eigenkets transition probabilities. By using this model we determine the OAM quantum channel capacity in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. The proposed quantum channel model is of high importance for future study of quantum error correction coding to extend the transmission distance and data rate of free-space quantum communications.