Laboratory-based hyper-spectroscopy is a technology based on the ground high resolution spectrometer under laboratory conditions. Owing to effectively controlling the interference level, it plays an important role in the research of soil heavy metal pollution concentration inversion. In this paper, the theoretical basis for the inversion of soil heavy metal content by spectral reflectance characteristics is discussed. The current study of laboratory-based hyper-spectroscopy on soil is analyzed. The common technical methods for the inversion of soil heavy metal concentration by spectral reflectance characteristics are summarized. The problems encountered in the application of laboratory-based hyper-spectroscopy are analyzed.