Purpose: Use the OCTA to figure out the relationship between PWS structure and therapeutic effect. Method: Before and immediately after V-PDT, OCTA was used to scan the skin of the same part of 80 patients. The efficacy was evaluated colorimetrically 3-6 months after V-PDT. The relationship between PWS lesion structure and V-PDT efficacy was analyzed. The lesion structural factors affecting the prognosis of V-PDT were analyzed using a multi-factor binary Logistic regression model. Result: Among the total 80 PWS patients who received V-PDT, 22 were non-responders and 58 got improved. Comparing the structure in non-responders and improved patients, non-responders had a thicker epidermis (P=0.0012), and a higher proportion of 10-30μm vessels (P=0.0014), higher average density ratio between shallow and deep layers (P=0.0006), higher proportion of vertical vessels (P<0.0001), and no decrease of number of vessels immediately after V-PDT (P=0.002). Conclusion: Multiple structural factors can significantly affect the efficacy of V-PDT.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for colorectal cancer owing to its high selectivity and limited systemic side effects. However, the true potential of PDT for therapeutic applications against tumors hasn’t been realized partly due to the complexity of PDT regimen. In the present study, we examine the efficacy of different fluence rates of hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD)-mediated PDT to predict long-term control rates of murine CT26 colorectal cancer. We further show how variation in the expression of immune checkpoints in the response of HpD-PDT at different fluence rates. Tumor-bearing mice were injected with 5 mg/kg HpD and subjected 48 h later to an 80 J/cm2 red light dose administered at fluence rates of 10, 50, and 100 mW/cm2. The expression of immune checkpoints（PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3）on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was measured 10 days after PDT. Mice treated with fluence rates of 10 and 50 mW/cm2 exhibited significantly longer survival than those treated at 100mW/cm2. Immune checkpoints on tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells were upregulated following PDT. Tumors treated with fluence rate of 10 mW/cm2 showed a significant increase of immune checkpoints on CD8+ T cells than those treated at 50 and 100 mW/cm2. Low light fluence rate results in significant tumor control and immune checkpoints upregulation. Improved tumor control could be expected by reducing the rate and combining checkpoint inhibitors with PDT using low fluence rate. Our data establish a correlation between activation of immune checkpoint and fluence rate and show the potential to combine PDT with checkpoint inhibitors.
Port-wine stains (PWS) are one of the most common congenital vascular malformations. PWS lesions result in pink or purplish red patches on skin, which mostly occur on the face or neck, thus greatly reduce the life quality of PWS patients. The key point of treating PWS is selectively block the dilated vessels located in the dermis. Hence, mastering the information of PWS morphological parameters would contribute to PWS treatment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, label-free, rapid, high resolution optic imaging method, which can image skin structure and has been greatly developed in recent 20 years. This review will address what is presently known about OCT on PWS detection at home and abroad.
Osteoporosis is a bone disease associated with aging. As the population ages, osteoporosis has become a significant public health problem that threaten life quality of most countries in the world. Adequate vitamin D is able to improve intestinal calcium absorption, promote bone mineralization, maintain muscle strength, enhance balancing ability, and reduce fall risks, whichplays a vital role in bone metabolism. Moreover, vitamin D is mainly produced by ultraviolet (UV) light. The serum levels of 25(OH)D3 is the tools for estimating of the osteoporosis.It is known that vitamin D deficiency is ubiquitous in the elderly population, hence, we adopted UV light-emitting diode (UV-LED) instruments to generate narrow-range wavelengths of UV and determined its capability for producing vitamin D. The osteoporosis SD rats are our research subjects. The study was to investigate the effects of UV-LEDs of different power densities on vitamin D production. There are 4 groups：0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8mW/cm2 and the rats (n = 6 per group) were irradiated with different power densities twice a week for a total of 8 weeks. The results showed that serum 25(OH)D3 levels rapidly increased in all irradiated groups compared with those in the control group (P < 0.001 in all groups), and 25(OH)D3 level of the rats in groups of both 0.4 and 0.8 m W/cm2 were able to return to the initial level at the fourth week after irradiation, besides, the group of 0.4 mW/ W/cm2 can achieve and maintain the highest25(OH)D3 level and so as the group of 0.8 m W/cm2 as the continuing irradiation. We demonstrate that the proper irradiation density of UV-LED irradiation can increase the production of vitamin D in rats and does not adversely affect the skin of rats.
Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic bone disease in which the bone mass reduce, the microstructure of the bone degenerate, and the bone fragility increase, which would be prone to fracture. In the light of the aging society, the incidence of osteoporosis is increasing year by year. At present, the mainstream treatment is using drugs. Although drugs have certain therapeutic effect on osteoporosis, it require long-term medication and will arise different adverse reactions. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is an emerging treatment in recent years. It is the application of a coherent or incoherent low-intensity laser, usually in the infrared to near-infrared 630-1000nm wavelength range, to the lesion tissue or monolayer cells to cause non-destructive and non-thermal biological reactions for therapeutic purposes. It is a physical therapy for therapeutic purposes. Studies have shown that low-level laser therapy can activate osteoblasts, promote bone repair, enhance the bone structure of peri-menopausal rat models, and increase bone density, which can be used as an effective intervention for osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly women. This article reviews recent advances in the study of low-level laser treatment of osteoporosis.